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Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center
 

The Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center (BSAC) is the Graduated National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Microsensors and Microactuators. We conduct industry-relevant, interdisciplinary research on micro- and nano-scale sensors, moving mechanical elements, microfluidics, materials, processes & systems that take advantage of progress made in integrated-circuit, bio, and polymer technologies.

BSAC Current Active Projects as of April 18, 2014

Number of records: 95
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PROJECT MATERIALS
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PROJECT TITLEADVISOR
1Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN741BPN741 WebsiteProgrammable Gyroscope Test Platform New ProjectBernhard E. Boser
2Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN753BPN753 WebsiteRatio-metric Readout Technique for MEMS Gyroscopes with Force Feedback New ProjectBernhard E. Boser
3Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN722BPN722 WebsiteUltrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Using Piezoelectric Micro-Machined Ultrasonic Transducer (PMUT)Bernhard E. Boser
4BioMEMSBPN649BPN649 WebsiteMagnetic Particle Flow CytometerBernhard E. Boser
5BioMEMSBPN685BPN685 WebsiteIn-Vivo Imaging of Microscopic Residual Disease in CancerBernhard E. Boser
6Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN608BPN608 WebsiteFM GyroscopeBernhard E. Boser
7NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN665BPN665 WebsiteMEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) System Demonstrator: High Resolution FMCW LADARBernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Connie Chang-Hasnain, Eli Yablonovitch
8MicrofluidicsBPN733BPN733 WebsiteSingle-Cell Culture and Analysis on a Optoelectronic Tweezers Platform New ProjectMing C. Wu, Song Li
9MicrofluidicsBPN552BPN552 WebsiteLight-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting)Ming C. Wu
10NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN751BPN751 WebsiteLarge scale MEMS Silicon photonics Switch New ProjectMing C. Wu
11NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN721BPN721 WebsiteMEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) Component CharacterizationMing C. Wu
12NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN678BPN678 WebsiteMEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI)Ming C. Wu, Bernhard E. Boser
13NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN651BPN651 WebsiteLow Power, Low noise Cavity Optomechanical OscillatorsMing C. Wu, Clark T.-C. Nguyen
14NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN458BPN458 WebsiteOptical Antenna-Based nanoLEDMing C. Wu
15NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN703BPN703 WebsiteDirectly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light EmissionMing C. Wu
16NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN609BPN609 WebsiteUltra-compact photodetectors on Silicon photonicsMing C. Wu
17MicrofluidicsBPN732BPN732 WebsiteThe Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid Dynamics New ProjectDorian Liepmann
18MicrofluidicsBPN621BPN621 WebsiteMicrofluidic Separation of Blood for SIMBAS BiosensorDorian Liepmann
19BioMEMSBPN729BPN729 WebsiteFunctional Plastic Microstructures Fabricated Using Electroplating and Hot EmbossingDorian Liepmann
20MicrofluidicsBPN711BPN711 WebsitePoint-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based SensorsDorian Liepmann
21BioMEMSBPN622BPN622 WebsiteDesign of an Ex-vivo Prototype of a Bioartificial KidneyDorian Liepmann, Shuvo Roy
23Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN687BPN687 WebsiteQES: Robust Optical Flame Detection in Harsh EnvironmentsLiwei Lin
24NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN736BPN736 WebsiteAtomic Layer Deposition Ruthenium Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Supercapacitor Applications New ProjectLiwei Lin
25NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN672BPN672 WebsiteSolar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water SplittingLiwei Lin
26MicropowerBPN737BPN737 WebsiteStackable Microliter-Scale Microbial Fuel Cells for Low Power Output Applications New ProjectLiwei Lin
27MicropowerBPN742BPN742 Website3D Carbon-based Materials for Electrochemical Applications New ProjectLiwei Lin
28Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN743BPN743 WebsiteHighly Responsible Curved pMUTs New ProjectLiwei Lin
29BioMEMSBPN715BPN715 WebsiteStimuli Responsive Capsules for Drug Delivery and Diagnostic ApplicationsLiwei Lin
30Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN574BPN574 WebsiteOn-Chip Micro-InductorLiwei Lin
31BioMEMSBPN473BPN473 WebsiteNext-Generation Microfluidic Components, Circuits and SystemsLiwei Lin, Luke P. Lee
32MicrofluidicsBPN706BPN706 WebsiteSingle-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic LithographyLiwei Lin
33MicrofluidicsBPN586BPN586 WebsiteIntegrated Finger-Powered Microfluidic Pumps for Point-of-Care DiagnosticsLiwei Lin
34MicrofluidicsBPN702BPN702 WebsiteA Continuous-Flow Microdroplets Lysis SystemLiwei Lin
35BioMEMSBPN438BPN438 WebsiteMicroengineered Technologies for Controlling Cellular FunctionsLiwei Lin, Song Li
36BioMEMSBPN675BPN675 WebsiteImplantable Micro Drug Delivery SystemLiwei Lin
37Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN708BPN708 WebsiteDirect-Write Graphene Channel Field Effect with Self-Aligned Top GateLiwei Lin
38NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN606BPN606 WebsiteCarbon Nanotube Films for Energy Storage ApplicationsLiwei Lin
39Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN424BPN424 WebsiteSilicon Carbide Technology for Harsh Environment Sensing and Energy ApplicationsRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
40Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN738BPN738 WebsiteSensor instrumentation to improve safety of U. S. underground coal mines New ProjectIgor Paprotny, Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright
42Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN392BPN392 WebsiteMobile Airborne Particulate Matter Monitor for Cellular DeploymentRichard M. White, Lara Gundel, Igor Paprotny
43MicropowerBPN562BPN562 WebsiteAC Energy Scavenging for Smart Grid SensingRichard M. White, Igor Paprotny
44Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN697BPN697 WebsiteNatural Gas Pipeline ResearchRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny
45MicropowerBPN654BPN654 WebsiteElectret-Based Voltage Sensing and Energy Harvesting from Energized ConductorsRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny
46Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN505BPN505 WebsiteDeployment of Wireless Stick-On Circuit Breaker PEM AC Sensors for the Smart GridRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny
47Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN746BPN746 WebsiteLiquid Heterojunction Sensors New ProjectAli Javey
48Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN747BPN747 WebsiteFully Printed High Performance Flexible Electronics New ProjectAli Javey
49Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN698BPN698 WebsiteMultifunctional Electronic SkinAli Javey
50NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN748BPN748 WebsiteHighly-sensitive electronic-whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle composite films New ProjectAli Javey
51NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN752BPN752 WebsiteHighly Efficient and Stable Photocathode for Solar Hydrogen Production New ProjectAli Javey
52Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN755BPN755 WebsiteCarrier selective oxide contacts for silicon electronics New ProjectAli Javey
53NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN704BPN704 WebsiteVapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on MetalAli Javey
54NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN694BPN694 WebsiteMonolayer Semiconductor DevicesAli Javey
55MicrofluidicsBPN723BPN723 WebsiteOrgan-on-a-chip for Personalized Medicine DevelopmentLuke P. Lee
56MicrofluidicsBPN730BPN730 WebsiteMicrofluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care DiagnosticsLuke P. Lee
57NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN727BPN727 WebsiteOn-Chip Single Molecule miRNA Detection for Cancer DiagnosisLuke P. Lee
58MicrofluidicsBPN679BPN679 WebsiteDigital Plasma Separation for One-Step Quantitative Nucleic Acid DetectionLuke P. Lee
59Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN480BPN480 WebsiteAM Fitzgerald: MEMS Design, Prototyping, Modeling, Failure Prediction and Foundry TransferJohn M. Huggins
60Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN354BPN354 WebsiteThe Nanoshift Concept: Innovation through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication for MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean Technologies at the UC Berkeley NanoLabJohn M. Huggins
61Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN712BPN712 WebsiteBridging Research-to-Commercialization Gaps through Facilitated IntermediariesJohn M. Huggins
62Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN735BPN735 WebsiteAutonomous Microrobotic Systems New ProjectKristofer S. J. Pister
63Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN744BPN744 WebsiteMr. Phelps' Motes: Self-Destructing Silicon New ProjectKristofer S.J. Pister, Ana Arias, Michel M. Maharbiz, Vivek Subramanian
64Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN713BPN713 WebsiteRing GINA: Highly Miniaturized Ring-Format Wearable MoteKristofer S.J. Pister
65Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN683BPN683 WebsiteOpenWSN: A Standards-Based Low-Power Wireless Development EnvironmentKristofer S.J. Pister
66MicropowerBPN648BPN648 WebsiteFully-Integrated, Low Input Voltage, Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter for Energy Harvesting ApplicationsKristofer S.J. Pister
67Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN705BPN705 WebsiteStandard CMOS-Based, Fully Integrated, Stick-On Electricity Meters for Building Sub-MeteringKristofer S.J. Pister, Steven Lanzisera
68Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN596BPN596 WebsiteSmart Fence and Other Wireless Sensing Applications for Critical Industrial EnvironmentsKristofer S.J. Pister
69BioMEMSBPN745BPN745 WebsiteWafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube Based Neural Probes New ProjectMichel M. Maharbiz
70BioMEMSBPN716BPN716 WebsiteNeural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic BrainMachine InterfacesMichel M. Maharbiz
71BioMEMSBPN717BPN717 WebsiteProof of Concept: Self-Assembly of a Multi-Cellular Synthetic-Biological HybridMichel M. Maharbiz
72BioMEMSBPN718BPN718 WebsiteDirect Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular RobotsMichel M. Maharbiz
73Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN714BPN714 WebsiteElectronic Bandage for Wound HealingMichel M. Maharbiz
74Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN731BPN731 WebsiteFlexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural RecordingMichel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes
75Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN726BPN726 WebsiteTransparent Microelectrode Arrays for Hybrid Experiments in NeuroscienceMichel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche
76BioMEMSBPN573BPN573 WebsiteCarbon Fiber Microelectrode Arrays for Chronic Stimulation and Recording in InsectsMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
77BioMEMSBPN571BPN571 WebsiteImplantable Microengineered Neural Interfaces for Studying and Controlling InsectsMichel M. Maharbiz
78BioMEMSBPN699BPN699 WebsiteA Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale ElectrophysiologyMichel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche
79NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN518BPN518 WebsiteSynthetic Turing PatternsMichel M. Maharbiz, Murat Arcak
80Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN599BPN599 WebsiteMEMS Electronic Compass: Three-axis MagnetometerDavid A. Horsley
81Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN466BPN466 WebsiteAluminum Nitride Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound TransducersDavid A. Horsley
82Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN628BPN628 WebsiteHigh Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (PMUTs)David A. Horsley
83Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN603BPN603 WebsiteHemispherical Resonator GyroscopeDavid A. Horsley
84Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN684BPN684 WebsiteIntegrated Microgyroscopes with Improved Scale-Factor and Bias StabilityDavid A. Horsley
85Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN655BPN655 WebsiteMaterials for High Quality-Factor Resonating GyroscopesDavid A. Horsley
86Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN734BPN734 WebsitePackage-Derived Influences on Micromechanical Resonator Stability New ProjectClark T.-C. Nguyen
87Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN540BPN540 WebsiteTemperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
88Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN359BPN359 WebsiteMicromechanical Disk Resonator-Based OscillatorsClark T.-C. Nguyen, Elad Alon
89Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN534BPN534 WebsiteFully-Integrated Micromechanical Clock OscillatorClark T.-C. Nguyen
90Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN707BPN707 WebsiteHigh-Order Micromechanical Electronic FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
91Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN433BPN433 WebsiteA Micromechanical Power ConverterClark T.-C. Nguyen
92Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN435BPN435 WebsiteA Micromechanical Power AmplifierClark T.-C. Nguyen
93Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN434BPN434 WebsiteA Micromechanical RF ChannelizerClark T.-C. Nguyen
94Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN682BPN682 WebsiteStrong I/O Coupled High-Q Micromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
95Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN676BPN676 WebsiteQ-boosted Optomechanical OscillatorsClark T.-C. Nguyen, Ming C. Wu
96Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN701BPN701 WebsiteBridged Micromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
97Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN709BPN709 WebsiteTunable & Switchable Micromechanical RF FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen

Project Abstracts

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Table of Projects
Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN741 New Project
Project Title Programmable Gyroscope Test Platform
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Oleg I. Izyumin
Abstract This project aims to develop a compact and self-contained universal test platform for DSP-based control of MEMS gyroscopes and resonant sensors. Many operating modes require features not available in off-the-shelf laboratory instruments, and it is difficult to perform sensor testing and validation with laboratory test equipment due to size and power constraints. We have implemented a multi- channel digital lock-in amplifier in FPGA hardware, providing PLLs, modulators, demodulators, filters, and the capability to add custom functionality. Software-based baseband DSP allows sophisticated control algorithms to be easily implemented and tested. The main system board provides data conversion for sense and drive signals at sampling rates up to 2 MHz, as well as flexible power and biasing options to the sensor daughterboard. The system interfaces to a PC for algorithm development and data acquisition, and can also operate autonomously.
Contact Information oleg.izyumin@gmail.com
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN753 New Project
Project Title Ratio-metric Readout Technique for MEMS Gyroscopes with Force Feedback
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords MEMS Gyroscope, Inertial Sensors, Force Feedback
Researchers Burak Eminoglu, Mitchell H. Kline, Igor Izyumin, Yu-Ching Yeh
Abstract Scale factor accuracy is critical for navigation grade gyroscopes. Traditional MEMS vibratory gyroscopes with force feedback provide good resolution, but their scale factor depends on a plethora of parameters including proof mass bias voltage, drive mode velocity, dimensions of the forcer electrodes, and mass. This project develops a ratio-metric readout technique for force feedback gyroscopes that provides a precise scale factor.
Contact Information eminoglu@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN722
Project Title Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Using Piezoelectric Micro-Machined Ultrasonic Transducer (PMUT)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Fingerprints, ultrasonic, MEMS, integrated circuits
Researchers Hao-Yen Tang, Yipeng Lu
Abstract The proliferation of electronic devices such as smartphones creates a pressing need for reliable biometric authentication. Present solutions such as capacitive fingerprint sensors have failed to gain wide acceptance due to there susceptibility to contamination from oils, perspiration, and dirt. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensors solve these problems but currently available devices too large and costly for deployment in consumer devices. The goal of this project is to fabricate a fingerprint sensor based on a piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) array and integrated electronics. A test chip comprising an 8 by 24 array of PMUTs fabricated on a 125um pitch and per-transducer readout electronics is presently in fabrication.
Contact Information b96901108@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Table of Projects
BioMEMS
Project IDBPN649
Project Title Magnetic Particle Flow Cytometer
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords magnetic flow cytometry
Researchers Pramod Murali
Abstract Flow Cytometry is a powerful technique used in health and disease diagnostics. This technique is used to analyze and sort individual cells of a biological sample. Some of the applications include, HIV and cancer detection, water quality monitoring, food safety among many others. Commercial equipments use laser source and an optical detector to study cells labeled with fluorescent molecules. Such an approach is expensive, bulky and suffers from optical background noise. We propose to replace the fluorescent markers with magnetic nano-particles (MNPs) to be detected by CMOS chips. Apart from eliminating the need for sample preparation, this approach has the advantage of being low cost, portable and disposable. Neel’s relaxation of MNPs leads to a frequency dependent complex susceptibility behaviour. The relaxation time constant depends on the nano-particle size and material. We use this phenomenon to distinguish different cells. Currently, we are in the process of characterizing different MNPs to observe Neel’s relaxation. Our goal is to combine the advantages of CMOS technology and the numerous applications of Flow Cytometry to meet the needs of point-of-care diagnostics.
Contact Information pramodm@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN685
Project Title In-Vivo Imaging of Microscopic Residual Disease in Cancer
Status Continuing
Funding Source NIH
Keywords cancer, imaging, radiation, surgery, breast, oncology
Researchers Mekhail Anwar
Abstract Successful treatment of early stage cancer depends on the ability to resect both gross and microscopic disease. Microscopic residual disease (MRD) can lead to increased risk for local recurrence (LR) and reduced overall survival (OS). Currently, no methods exist to intraoperatively assess whether individual cancer cells remain in the tumor bed; only post- operative pathologic evaluation of the tumor for molecular tumor markers, requiring several days in a laboratory setting, can definitely identify MRD. A prime example of this occurs in the over 50,000 women each year who are diagnosed with breast cancer, and are found to have MRD after lumpectomy. Elimination of MRD in breast cancer is known to reduce the need for second surgical procedures, half the LR rate from 30% to 15%, and increase breast cancer survival. Therefore a method of imaging MRD intraoperatively to guide complete resection is essential. This projects seeks to develop a method for intraoperatively identifying microscopic residual disease.
Contact Information anwarme@radonc.ucsf.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Table of Projects
Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN608
Project Title FM Gyroscope
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords gyroscope, calibration
Researchers Mitchell H. Kline, Igor Izyumin, Yu-Ching Yeh, Burak Eminoglu
Abstract MEMS gyroscopes for consumer devices, such as smartphones and tablets, suffer from high power consumption and drift which precludes their use in inertial navigation applications. Conventional MEMS gyroscopes detect Coriolis force through measurement of very small displacements on a sense axis, which requires low-noise, and consequently high-power, electronics. The sensitivity of the gyroscope is improved through mode-matching, but this introduces many other problems, such as low bandwidth and unreliable scale factor. Additionally, the conventional Coriolis force detection method is very sensitive to asymmetries in the mechanical transducer because the rate signal is derived from only the sense axis. Parasitic coupling between the drive and sense axis introduces unwanted bias errors which could be rejected by a perfectly symmetric readout scheme. This project develops frequency modulated (FM) gyroscopes that overcome the above limitations. FM gyroscopes also promise to improve the power dissipation and drift of MEMS gyroscopes. We present results from a prototype FM gyroscope with integrated CMOS readout electronics demonstrating the principle.
Contact Information mitchellk@berkeley.edu, izyumin@eecs.berkeley.edu, ycyeh@eecs.berkeley.edu, eminoglu@eecs.berkeley.e
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Table of Projects
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN665
Project Title MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) System Demonstrator: High Resolution FMCW LADAR
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Photonics, LADAR, LIDAR, MEMS Tuning, EOPLL, Optoelectronics, Ranging
Researchers Behnam Behroozpour, Niels Quack, Phillip Sandborn
Abstract In recent years we have seen a growing demand for 3D cameras for applications such as gaming, entertainment, and autonomous vehicles. Present solutions suffer from high power dissipation and large size. This project leverages heterogeneous integration of standard CMOS electronics with high performance optical components including lasers, photo-diodes, interferometers and waveguides to reduce size, cost, and power dissipation.
Contact Information behroozpour@berkeley.edu, quack@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Connie Chang-Hasnain, Eli Yablonovitch

 
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Table of Projects
Microfluidics
Project IDBPN733 New Project
Project Title Single-Cell Culture and Analysis on a Optoelectronic Tweezers Platform
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Optoelectronic tweezers, OET, single cell, single cell analysis
Researchers Shao Ning Pei, Tiffany Dai
Abstract In contrast to bulk analysis, analyzing biological samples on a single-cell level is a powerful tool in deriving a more complete, quantitative understanding of cellular behavior. The optoelectronic tweezers (OET) platform utilizes light-generated dielectrophoretic force to manipulate micro-scale objects reconfigurably on the device surface. Consequently, OET is able to select for individual cells and manipulate them into a specific configuration where these cells are cultured and studied for an extended period of time. Compared to trap-based single-cell techniques, the OET platform provides advantages such as specific selection of an individual cell and subsequent culturing over a larger-scale area at a particular address on the surface of the device. We are looking to apply the OET platform for long- term culture of single cells and gain useful insights into topics such as rate of proliferation, differentiation, and changes in morphology and protein expression.
Contact Information shaoning@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Song Li

 
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Table of Projects
Microfluidics
Project IDBPN552
Project Title Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Digital Microfluidics, Droplet Microfluidics, Electrowetting, Optoelectrowetting, EWOD, Optofluidics
Researchers Shao Ning Pei
Abstract The ability to quickly perform large numbers of chemical and biological reactions in parallel using low reagent volumes is a field well addressed by droplet-based digital microfluidics. Compared to continuous flow-based techniques, digital microfluidics offers the added advantages such as individual sample addressing and reagent isolation. We are developing a Light- Actuated Digital Microfluidics device (also known as optoelectrowetting) that optically manipulates nano- to micro-liter scale aqueous droplets on the device surface. The device possesses many advantages including ease of fabrication (no lithography required) and the ability for real-time, reconfigurable, large-scale droplets control (simply by altering the low-intensity projected light pattern). We hope to develop Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics into a powerful platform for lab- on-a-chip (LOC) applications.
Contact Information shaoning@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN751 New Project
Project Title Large scale MEMS Silicon photonics Switch
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords optical switch, large scale, fast, small footprint
Researchers Sangyoon Han, Tae Joon Seok, Niels Quack
Abstract Fast and large scale optical switch is demonstrated in this project. MEMS is integrated with Silicon photonics waveguides to actively route light. MEMS and Silicon photonics wavegudies are integrated in monotonically in SOI platform to make the fabrication easy and robust. We demonstrated 50x50 network with 2us switching time in a chip has area less than 1cmx1cm. Our near goal is to demonstrate scale larger than 200x200 with ~100ns switching time.
Contact Information sangyoon@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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Table of Projects
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN721
Project Title MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) Component Characterization
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords LADAR, optical phase-locked loop, silicon photonics, 3D integration,
Researchers Phillip A.M. Sandborn, Behnam Behroozpour, Niels Quack, Sangyoon Han
Abstract Active III-V photonic components and passive Si photonic circuits are integrated with CMOS electronic circuits to create an integrated optoelectronic phase-locked loop. The OPLL will be utilized to generate an optical linear frequency chirp for target detection and ranging. One goal of the project is to develop the ability to fabricate 3D-integrated devices on the wafer level. This requires proper device and module characterization and a deep understanding of the integration process as well as system feedback parameters. Many characterization methods are being been developed and used to constrain device and module design parameters and predict LADAR performance before and after integration processes.
Contact Information sandborn@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN678
Project Title MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI)
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS, CMOS, VCSEL, HCG, PIC, FMCW LADAR, photonics
Researchers Niels Quack, Behnam Behroozpour, Sangyoon Han, Phillip Sandborn
Abstract Active III-V photonic components and passive Si photonic circuits are integrated with CMOS electronic circuits in this project. The modular MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) platform will make use of the high performance of the individual components and integrate (1) MEMS tunable VCSEL with high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors, (2) photodetectors, (3) Si photonic waveguides, couplers, and interferometers, (4) high-efficiency vertical optical coupler between III-V and Si waveguides, and (5) CMOS circuits for frequency control and temperature compensation. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed MEPHI platform, a frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) source is being developed.
Contact Information quack@eecs.berkeley.edu, behroozpour@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Bernhard E. Boser

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN651
Project Title Low Power, Low noise Cavity Optomechanical Oscillators
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Optomechanics, Radiation Pressure
Researchers Alejandro J. Grine, Turker Beyazoglu, Niels Quack, Tristan Rocheleau
Abstract Cavity optomechanics is a new and rapidly advancing field in which light is used to alter the properties of a mechanical element. Our project specifically aims to enhance mechanical motion by means of optical radiation pressure in a cavity of both high optical and mechanical quality factors. When enough light is built up in such a cavity, the mechanical self-oscillation results in precisely modulated light at the cavity output. Though there may be numerous applications for cavity optomechanics, we seek to use optomechanical oscillators as a replacement for power-hungry microwave oscillators in chip scale atomic clocks. This work focuses on the RF photonic experimentation necessary to characterize and improve microfabricated optomechanical devices for the target application which requires a low phase noise optical carrier oscillator capable of operating at 3GHz.
Contact Information grine@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Table of Projects
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN458
Project Title Optical Antenna-Based nanoLED
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Plasmonics, Laser, Light Emitting Diode, Nanophotonics, Nanocavity, Optical Interconnects
Researchers Michael Eggleston, Seth Fortuna
Abstract Spontaneous emission has been considered slower and weaker than stimulated emission. As a result, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have only been used in applications with bandwidth < 1 GHz. Spontaneous emission is inefficient because the radiating dipole is much smaller than wavelength and such short dipoles are poor radiators. By attaching an optical antenna to the radiating dipole at the nanoscale, the emission rate can be significantly increased enabling high modulation bandwidths theoretically >100 GHz. This project focuses on the physical demonstration of this new type of nanophotonic device. Current fabrication and experimental results of waveguide-coupled devices will be presented.
Contact Information eggles@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN703
Project Title Directly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light Emission
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords nano-photonics, optical antenna, photonics, optical interconnect, nanotechnology, optoelectronics, plasmonics
Researchers Seth A. Fortuna, Michael Eggleston
Abstract Coupling an optical antenna to a nanoscale light emitter has been shown to increase the spontaneous emission rate by compensating for the large size mismatch between the emitter and emission wavelength. This spontaneous emission rate enhancement has been predicted to be as large as several orders of magnitude, easily surpassing the stimulated emission rate and enabling high direct modulation bandwidths. The aim of this project is to utilize this concept to demonstrate a directly modulated nanoscale semiconductor light emitting diode (nanoLED) with modulation speeds in excess of 10s of GHz, exceeding the bandwidth of semiconductor lasers. Unlike lasers, such nanoLEDs are also inherently low-power and do not require minimum threshold current density for operation and are therefore a promising light generating source for use, for example, in intra-chip communication.
Contact Information fortuna@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN609
Project Title Ultra-compact photodetectors on Silicon photonics
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords phototransistor, silicon photonics, metal-optics
Researchers Ryan Going, Tae Joon Seok
Abstract As CMOS devices shrink in physical size, electrical interconnects between the devices will consume an ever-greater proportion of total chip power. A promising solution is to use silicon photonics for intra- and inter-chip communications. To be cost effective, both the optical transmitter and receiver should be made small, highly efficient, and CMOS compatible. Shrinking the photodiode will increase sensitivity and energy efficiency, but as it gets very small, the capacitance of the wire to the first amplifying stage in the receiver becomes significant. We present a solution which integrates the photodiode and first stage transistor in the form of an integrated germanium gate photoMOSFET. The rapid melt growth technique is used to integrate high quality single crystal germanium onto a silicon waveguide integrated device in a CMOS process. Due to the high quality of the germanium, the responsivity of the photoMOSFETs can be driven to over 10 A/W at 1550nm. Further scaling of these devices is possible only if the reduced absorption from a small size is addressed. Electromagnetic simulations describe a highly efficient metal-optic cavity, supporting efficient absorption in sub-fF scale devices.
Contact Information rwgoing@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN732 New Project
Project Title The Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid Dynamics
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords
Researchers Kathryn Fink, Karthik Prasad
Abstract The unique properties of blood flow in microchannels have been studied for nearly a century; much of the observed blood-specific dynamics is attributed to the biconcave shape of red blood cells. However, for almost twice as long biologists have observed and characterized the differences in the size and shape of red blood cells among vertebrates. With a few exceptions, mammals share the denucleated biconcave shape of erythrocytes but vary in size; oviparous vertebrates have nucleated ovoid red blood cells with size variations of a full order of magnitude. We utilize micro-PIV and pressure drop measurements to analyze blood flow of vertebrate species in microchannels, with a focus on understanding how cell size and shape alter the cell-free layer and velocity profile of whole blood. The results offer insight into the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and the selection of animal blood for the design and evaluation of biological microfluidic devices.
Contact Information kdfink@berkeley.edu, liepmann@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN621
Project Title Microfluidic Separation of Blood for SIMBAS Biosensor
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords
Researchers Kathryn Fink
Abstract The goal of this research is to characterize and optimize a continuous-flow, blood fractionation platform using particle image velocimetry to analyze the critical operating parameters. The microfluidic system will separate from a blood sample a platelet-enriched plasma containing pathogens and pathogenic biomarkers. It will also provide a stream of concentrated blood cells including pathogenic plasmodial cells. The project supports the development of a Universal Sample Preparation and Pre-Concentration (USB) module for the SIMBAS project.
Contact Information kdfink@berkeley.edu, kdfink@gmail.com
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN729
Project Title Functional Plastic Microstructures Fabricated Using Electroplating and Hot Embossing
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Jacobo Paredes, Kathryn Fink
Abstract The overall goal of this research is the development of fabrication techniques for simple, cheap, and rapid creation of plastic or polymer based microfluidic devices. Currently microfluidic systems are made using PDMS because it is ideal for rapid laboratory research. However, PDMS is not an ideal material for commercialization because of its material and chemical properties especially for any applications that require hydrophilic compounds. Our long-term goals are to further explore the potential of hot-embossed microscale devices as platforms for complete BioMEMS devices. This includes the integration of flow diagnostic elements and silicon-based biosensors.
Contact Information jparedes@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN711
Project Title Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based Sensors
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Biosensor, healthcare, graphene, microfluidics
Researchers Jacobo Paredes, Kathryn Fink
Abstract Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1C monitoring are all valuable tools in the health management of the aging population, especially given the increase in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Even for glucose monitoring, the challenges obtaining sufficiently accurate and reliable measurements are so significant that the FDA is contemplating more stringent standards. Guido Freckmann, et al., J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 6, 1060-1075, 2012, have compared 43 blood glucose self-monitoring systems. Out of this, 34 systems were completely assessed and 27 (79.4%) systems fulfilled the minimal accuracy requirements and only 18 (52.9%) of 34 systems fulfilled the requirements of the proposed tighter criteria in the current standards draft. None of them meet the even more stringent requirement of ISO 2012 and FDA. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions and rising health care costs, there is an urgent need for significantly enhanced BG monitoring systems for PC applications. POC tests for other biomedically important analytes are generally even less accurate. The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop new sensor platforms that will provide increased sensitivity and accuracy in point-of-care situations. This is a joint project with Harvard Medical School and Vanderbilt University.
Contact Information liepmann@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN622
Project Title Design of an Ex-vivo Prototype of a Bioartificial Kidney
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords Microfluidics, BioMEMS, Artificial Kidney, Medical Devices
Researchers Peter Soler
Abstract The goal of this project is to design, fabricate, and study a bioartificial kidney. The motivation behind the project is to further the development toward an implantable bioartificial human kidney that will improve quality of life and reduce cost for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. My proposed device contains two units: i) a hemofilter based upon nanoporous silicon membranes, and ii) a bioreactor composed of kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells. The focus of my study is to develop a device design that is optimized for adequate mass transport so as to mimic natural kidney function. The Roy group has pioneered work in membranes that have been engineered with the use of silicon- based microfabrication techniques to attain pore slits with a height of 8-11 nm. The fabricated nanoporous membranes allow for a device with tight pore size distribution, complete immunoisolation, and durability. These are critical membrane specifications that make them well suited for this application.
Contact Information soler@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann, Shuvo Roy

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN687
Project Title QES: Robust Optical Flame Detection in Harsh Environments
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords UV sensor
Researchers Kaiyuan Yao
Abstract The goal of this project is to create a UV sensor for use as a flame detection system in gas turbine engine applications. In many gas-turbine engines, unnecessary engine shutdowns arise from sensors failing to detect the engine flame because of deep films of oil and/or water that block the sensor. In the infrared- and visible-light regions of the optical spectrum there is limited penetration through oil/water mixtures. A UV sensor is to be designed that will be able to robustly detect flames through oil/water mixtures that may build up on lenses in the gas turbine engine. For this purpose, we're exploring difference device possibilities based on ZnO nanowires, graphene, diamond, etc.
Contact Information pencilyao@gmail.com
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN736 New Project
Project Title Atomic Layer Deposition Ruthenium Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Supercapacitor Applications
Status New
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Atomic layer deposition, supercapacitor, energy storage
Researchers Roseanne H. Warren, Alina Kozinda
Abstract This work presents the first demonstration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) ruthenium oxide (RuO2) and its conformal coating onto vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests as supercapacitor electrodes. Specific accomplishments include: (1) successful demonstration of ALD RuO2 deposition, (2) uniform coating of RuO2 on a vertically aligned CNT forest, and (3) an ultra-high specific capacitance of 100 mF/cm2 from prototype electrodes with a scan rate of 100 mV/s. Advantages of the ALD method include precise control of the RuO2 layer thickness and composition without the use of CNT- binder molecules. In addition to high capacitance, preliminary results indicate that the ALD RuO2- CNTs have good stability over repeated cycling. Besides its use in supercapacitors, ALD-RuO2 has potential NEMS applications: in biosensors and pH sensing, as a strong oxidative material in multiple chemical processes, and in catalytic reactions for photocatalytic systems.
Contact Information warrenr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN672
Project Title Solar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water Splitting
Status Continuing
Funding Source KAUST
Keywords Solar energy, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, nanostructures
Researchers Roseanne H. Warren
Abstract Photocatalytic water splitting is the process of converting water into hydrogen and oxygen with solar energy using a photocatalytic material. When light is absorbed by the photocatalyst, an electron-hole pair is generated that interacts with water molecules in a surface reduction- oxidation reaction to decompose the water into hydrogen and oxygen. One of the greatest challenges in photocatalysis is engineering the photocatalytic material for high conversion efficiency and wide absorption spectrum in the visible light range. Metal oxide nanomaterials have demonstrated promising capabilities as photocatalysts due to their high surface area-to- volume ratios, ability to be densely grown at large scales, cost-effectiveness, and stability in water. This project aims to improve the performance of metal oxide nanomaterials for water splitting, in particular TiO2 nanowires and TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes, using innovative growth processes, co-catalytic materials, and band-gap manipulation.
Contact Information warrenr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN737 New Project
Project Title Stackable Microliter-Scale Microbial Fuel Cells for Low Power Output Applications
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Vishnu Jayaprakash, Ryan D. Sochol, Roseanne Warren, Kosuke Iwai, Casey Glick
Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are energy harvesters that use the anaerobic respiration of micro- organisms to generate electricity. With the increase in demand for micro-scale, low power output energy harvesters over the last five years, microliter-scale microbial fuel cells (µMFCs) have received a great deal of scientific interest. Previously, researchers have operated these fuel cells under controlled anodic conditions to attain high current densities and columbic efficiencies. However, relatively low power outputs, inadequate working potentials, complex fabrication processes and tedious operating techniques have limited µMFCs from implementation in practical applications. To improve such performance and enhance the practicality of these fuel cells, this project presents new fuel cell architectures, electrode materials, fabrication techniques and operating procedures.
Contact Information soorse@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN742 New Project
Project Title 3D Carbon-based Materials for Electrochemical Applications
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Xining Zang
Abstract Carbon-based materials such as CNT (1D) and graphene (2D) have been widely studied as electrode materials in various applications, including sensing, catalyst and energy storage. The extraordinary properties of these carbon-based materials provide possible advantages in reduced reaction potential, low surface fouling, and large surface area. This project aims to investigate possible combination of the 1D and 2D carbon-based materials in the form of 3D structures. The possible new structure could exhibit the following desirable characteristics: 1) conformal deposition with ordered 3D CNT/graphene structures; 2) high surface area with active surfaces; 3) feasibility of embedding other catalysts for electrochemical reactions. The long term goals are to optimize the 3D graphene/CNT materials both structurally and functionally for applications in electrochemical sensors, catalysts, and energy storage devices.
Contact Information xining.zang.me@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN743 New Project
Project Title Highly Responsible Curved pMUTs
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Sina Akhbari
Abstract Ultrasonic imaging is one of the most important and widely used medical imaging techniques, which uses high-frequency sound waves to view soft tissues such as muscles, internal organs as well as blood flowing through blood vessels in real time. With the advancement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), ultrasonic devices operated based on plate flexural mode have shown remarkable improvements in bandwidth, cost, and yield over the conventional thickness-mode PZT sensors. MEMS fabrication technologies can be utilized to realize both capacitive (cMUTs) and piezoelectric (pMUTs) micromachined ultrasonic transducers However, these devices could enjoy much more widespread applications if they were adjustable, better focused with lower energy requirements. This project aims to highly responsive pMUTs based on CMOS compatible fabrication processes with the potential to replace the plate-based pMUTs for high electromechanical coupling ultrasonic transducer arrays for applications in fingerprint IDs, body movement sensors, and hand-held medical imagers
Contact Information sina.akhbari68@gmail.com
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN715
Project Title Stimuli Responsive Capsules for Drug Delivery and Diagnostic Applications
Status Continuing
Funding Source KAUST
Keywords Core-Shell Particles, Smart Capsules, Stimuli Responsive Capsules, Drug Delivery, Diagnostics
Researchers Fatemeh Nazly Pirmoradi, Kosuke Iwai
Abstract Particulate-based vaccines offer a safer alternative to traditional organism-based vaccines; however, their effectiveness to provoke immune response largely depends on the micro/nanodelivery systems carrying the antigen. In this project, we introduce a new class of functional microcapsules that offer the potential to not only overcome a number of hurdles associated with current particulate vaccine manufacturing technology (e.g., exposure of antigens to organic solvents or degradation during encapsulation), but also enable new functionalities for transporting the microcapsules and releasing their contents on-demand.
Contact Information pirmoradi@berkeley.edu, k.iwai@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN574
Project Title On-Chip Micro-Inductor
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Inductor, On-Chip, RF
Researchers Kisik Koh
Abstract On-chip inductors are key passive elements to high-power and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs). This project aims to realize super-compact on-chip micro-inductor with magnetic media for high-power and RF IC's, including: 1) to explore low-loss, high resonance frequency magnetic material for inductor application; 2) to develop magnetic-material integration process; 3) to realize the super-compact magnetic-embedded inductor. The long-term objectives for this project are to resolve the current problem of lacking compact-size high-performance on-chip inductors, and then reduces the whole circuit cost significantly and helps the practical realization of RF systems-on-a- chip (SoCs) for real-world applications.
Contact Information kskoh@berkeley.edu, lwlin@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN473
Project Title Next-Generation Microfluidic Components, Circuits and Systems
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Microparticles, Lab-on-a-chip, Microbeads, Dynamic Microarrays, Cells, Optofluidic Lithography, 3D printing
Researchers Ryan D. Sochol
Abstract Mechanical engineering methods and microfabrication techniques offer powerful means for solving biological challenges. In particular, microfabrication processes enable researchers to develop technologies at scales that are biologically relevant and advantageous for executing biochemical reactions. Here, microfluidic, optofluidic, an 3D printing-based methodologies are employed to develop autonomous microfluidic components, circuits, and systems for chemical and biological applications.
Contact Information rsochol@me.berkeley.edu,
Advisor Liwei Lin, Luke P. Lee

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN706
Project Title Single-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic Lithography
Status New
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords microfluidic, gain, valve
Researchers Casey C. Glick, Ryan D. Sochol, Christopher Deeble, Ki Tae Wolf, Vishnu Jayaprakash, Kosuke Iwai
Abstract This project aims to create single-layer microfluidic gain valves for use in microfluidic devices. Autonomous microfluidic devices are essential for the long-term development of versatile biological and chemical platforms; however, the challenges of creating effective control mechanisms – e.g., the need for variable pressure sources, signal degradation in cascaded devices, and multi-stage manufacture methods – have proven considerable. Using in situ optofluidic lithography, we develop a single-layer pressure-based valve system with a static gain greater than unity. We will demonstrate the device in several microfluidic circuits, including logic gates and amplifiers. These pressure gain-based systems will enable microfluidic devices with a wide range of applications, such as flow rectifiers, oscillators, and high-precision pressure measurements. Due to ease of manufacture and design flexibility, this valve design could have widespread Lab-on- a-Chip applications by enabling self-regulation of microfluidic devices.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu, rsochol@gmail.com, k.iwai@berkeley.edu, lwlin@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN586
Project Title Integrated Finger-Powered Microfluidic Pumps for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Micropump, Microfluidics, Point-of-care Diagnostics, Lab-on-a-chip
Researchers Kosuke Iwai, Ryan D. Sochol
Abstract This project aims for developing a new 'human-powered' microfluidic system for point-of-care diagnostics applications. Chip- based microfluidics offers a promising platform for biological studies; however, bulky and expensive equipments such as syringe pumps limit the application. To minimize the total setup, we propose an alternative 'human-powered' fluid pumping device. Pressure generated by human finger works as a major power source to pump fluids into microfluidic devices without any electricity. As we use common softlithography fabrication process, our system can be easily integrated with existing microfluidic systems such as microdroplet generator or cell encapsulating system. In addition, it is possible, in the future, to apply injection molding to significantly reduce the cost for industrial applications. Our portable, easy-to-operate system offers an effective method for pumping fluid into microfluidic devices for expanding biological applications such as drug screening or point-of-care diagnostics.
Contact Information k.iwai@berkeley.edu, rsochol@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN702
Project Title A Continuous-Flow Microdroplets Lysis System
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Railing, Continuous Flow, Microdroplets, Lab-on-a Chip
Researchers Kosuke Iwai, Ryan D. Sochol
Abstract This Project aims for developing a versatile continuous-flow system for lysing microdroplet. Microdroplets have been widely utilized in diverse chemical and biological research and applications such as DNA sequencing or nanoparticle synthesis. Although highly robust and easy handling techniques of droplets are essential for those purposes, difficulties still remain in retrieving inner contents (e.g. cells, microbeads, biomolecules, reagents) of droplets for further experiments. Here we present a novel microfluidic system to achieve three distinctive accomplishments: (i) guiding droplets between different phase flows, oil flow and water flow, (ii) rapid washing process of surfactant on droplets, and (iii) quick and easy lysing of droplets and releasing their contents into water flow. The presented system offers a high-throughput method to wash and water-in-oil droplets for expanding droplet-based applications.
Contact Information k.iwai@berkeley.edu, rsochol@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN438
Project Title Microengineered Technologies for Controlling Cellular Functions
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords cell migration, cell motility, cell locomotion, BAECs, microtopography, Durotaxis, Anisotropy, Elliptical, Mechanotaxis, Spatiotaxis, MicroSprings, Microposts, Micropillars, 3D printing
Researchers Ryan D. Sochol
Abstract Mechanical engineering methods and microfabrication techniques offer powerful means for solving biological challenges. In particular, micro/nanofabrication processes enable researchers to engineer technologies at scales that are biologically relevant and advantageous for both controlling and sensing cellular functions. Here, novel micro/nanoengineered platforms are employed to investigate and regulate cellular processes.
Contact Information rsochol@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin, Song Li

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN675
Project Title Implantable Micro Drug Delivery System
Status Continuing
Funding Source KAUST
Keywords Drug delivery, implantable, magnetic membrane, controlled delivery, external actuation, on-demand delivery
Researchers Fatemeh Nazly Pirmoradi, Chen Yang
Abstract Implantable drug delivery devices that allow for remote, repeatable, and reliable drug delivery are expected to greatly improve the efficacy of medical treatments in the near future. However, few delivery systems to date have met the necessary requirements – sufficient drug storage, precision control over drug delivery, and on-demand activation – to be broadly useful. In this project, we develop an implantable drug delivery device that can be remotely controlled and provide drug on the on- demand basis for several years without replacement. We develop drug release mechanisms and nanomaterials, and incorporate all the components into a biocompatible system by establishing new fabrication methods. These devices are characterized by conducting in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies.
Contact Information pirmoradi@berkeley.edu, nazly_p@yahoo.com, chenyang@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN708
Project Title Direct-Write Graphene Channel Field Effect with Self-Aligned Top Gate
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Near Field Electrospinning, Graphene Transistor, Top Gate, Self Alignment
Researchers Yumeng Liu
Abstract The project amis at using Near Field Electrospinnin to fabricate top gate graphene transistor that is capable to pattern the source and drain electrodes through a self-alignment process, and the long range goals is to direct writing graphene transistors onto flexible and transparent substrate for low cost circuit applications, say RF mixer. As the conventional top gated device fabrication process often introduces the deposition of thin inorganic dielectric onto graphene layer with extra surface functionalizations, leading to an undesired damage of graphene lattice, or a non-ideal device geometry with excessive serial resistance or parasitic capacitance, here we investigate a self-aligned top gate graphene transistor process that could address those challenges by directly writing organic gate dielectrics onto graphene channel and precisely position the source, drain and gate electrode by self-alignment without significant overlappings or gaps between electrodes.
Contact Information yumengliu@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN606
Project Title Carbon Nanotube Films for Energy Storage Applications
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Carbon Nanotube, Supercapacitor, Energy Storage, Flexible
Researchers Alina Kozinda
Abstract As energy demands continue to rise, it becomes imperative to develop efficient energy storage devices with high energy and power density. At the same time, the space inside devices continues to shrink, making energy storage devices which possess not only high energy/power density, but also an adjustable shape to fit into various form factors an ideal solution. Energy storage devices made from flexible electrodes are attractive in a roll-up or surface-conformed format to minimize space usage. A mechanically flexible CNT supercapacitor electrode is demonstrated, as well as a lithium-ion battery electrode using a high-surface area silicon-conformally-coated CNT forest. The CNT supercapacitor electrode is demonstrated using a water solution-assisted film lift-off and densification process. This electrode exhibits the following three features: (1) each CNT has a natural contact to its as- fabricated current-collecting metal layer; (2) the CNTs and the bottom metal layer are intact during the water-assisted lift-off process; and (3) the in-situ liquid evaporation and densification process naturally occurs to dramatically increase volumetric energy density. Because of the ability of the film to be lifted off of its original growth substrate, the application for same-chip CMOS energy storage devices is feasible. In addition, this flexible CNT supercapacitor electrode has the potential to conform to various surfaces, as well as to be implemented in devices which are required to bend with use, such as in roll-up electronics.
Contact Information kozinda@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN424
Project Title Silicon Carbide Technology for Harsh Environment Sensing and Energy Applications
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Silicon Carbide, LPCVD, Nanowires, RF MEMS, Harsh Environment, Supercapacitors
Researchers Shuang Wang, Candy Chang, Lunet Luna, Steve Chen
Abstract Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a material of interest to fabricate sensors and actuators able to operate in harsh environments. Particularly, its mechanical and electrical stability and its chemical inertness make SiC well suited for designing devices capable of operation in high temperature and corrosive environments. Harsh-environment stable metallization remains one of the key challenges with SiC technology. We are developing novel metallization schemes, utilizing solid- state graphitization, to improve the long term reliability of metal/SiC contacts in high temperature environemnts. In addition, strategies to integrate on-chip energy storage with SiC sensors and actuators could increase the portability, mobility, and utility of these harsh environment devices. Our group is currently developing all-solid state supercapacitors based on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or ionogel solid electrolytes, and SiC nanowire- or carbon-based electrodes. We are developing methods for conformal deposition of YSZ. We also are studying different types of ionogels, which maintain the electrochemical properties of ionic liquids and can be easily shaped for the desired applications. The ionogels have been demonstrated as an effective solid-state electrolyte material with good mechanical compliance and a large electrochemical window. Combination of electrode materials with high surface area and these solid-state electrolyte materials can be potentially used for harsh environment sensing and energy applications.
Contact Information lunet@berkeley.edu, mingchen1993@gmail.com, maboudia@berkeley.edu,carraro@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN738 New Project
Project Title Sensor instrumentation to improve safety of U. S. underground coal mines
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords coal mine, wireless sensor network, sensing inertness, data rate, power supply
Researchers Pit Pillatsch
Abstract Coal mining is recognized as a dangerous undertaking. Explosions of gases that may exist underground (such as methane) and of fine coal dust mixed with air are well-known hazards, in addition to which are unexpected structural collapses. This project is aimed at creating real-time sensors to determine the "inertness" of the mine atmosphere, and communication of the information from inside the mine to safety personnel.
Contact Information paprotny@uic.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, pwright@me.berkeley.edu, p.pillatsch10@imperial.ac.uk :
Advisor Igor Paprotny, Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN392
Project Title Mobile Airborne Particulate Matter Monitor for Cellular Deployment
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords MEMS, Wireless, Particulates, Sensor, Mobile
Researchers Ben Gould
Abstract This project involves optimization of a portable MEMS-based instrument that quantifies and differentiates fine airborne particulate matter concentrations of such substances as diesel engine exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke, and wood smoke. The goal of the project is integration with and interfacing of the instrument to a cellular telephone for mobile monitoring.
Contact Information rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, paprotny@uic.edu, lagundel@lbl.gov, bgould@lbl.gov
Advisor Richard M. White, Lara Gundel, Igor Paprotny

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN562
Project Title AC Energy Scavenging for Smart Grid Sensing
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords
Researchers Son Duy Nguyen, Richard Xu, Chris Sherman
Abstract The goal of this project is to devise small, inexpensive modules for indoor or outdoor deployment that sense electrical variables on, and scavenge energy from, energized conductors such as appliance cords and the conductors on high-voltage power transmission lines and equipment. In addition to an energy scavenging element, the modules will contain sensors, their associated signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning and storage elements, and a wireless radio and antenna. We have recently demonstrated the ability to scavenge 2mW from a nearby conductor carrying 20 Arms, which is 10-100x more than can be extracted using comparable coil-based approaches.
Contact Information rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, igorpapa@eecs.berkeley.edu, qlxu@berkeley.edu, nguyen.duyson@berkeley.edu,
Advisor Richard M. White, Igor Paprotny

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN697
Project Title Natural Gas Pipeline Research
Status Continuing
Funding Source State
Keywords Gas, pipeline, sensor, pressure, flow, vibration, methane, wireless, ultrasonic, laser, weld, crack
Researchers Son Duy Nguyen
Abstract The goal is to develop technologies for natural gas pipelines that provide increased system awareness and reliability, lower system costs, better assessment of pipeline integrity, and provide tangible benefits for utility customers. The benefits sought are natural gas pipelines that are more reliable, efficient, and secure. The BSAC research can be divided into three areas: 1. Microfabricated MEMS natural gas sensors 2. Low-power wireless sensor communication infrastructure 3. Ultrasonic diagnostic and test devices for natural gas pipelines.
Contact Information igorpapa@eecs.berkeley.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, nguyen.duyson@berkeley.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN654
Project Title Electret-Based Voltage Sensing and Energy Harvesting from Energized Conductors
Status Continuing
Funding Source State
Keywords Electret, voltage sensor, energy harvester, energized conductors, Smart Grid, Demand Response
Researchers Richard Xu
Abstract The goal of this project is to design and fabricate electret-based voltage sensors and energy harvesters for Smart Grid and Demand Response applications. The functions of the proposed devices are to sense the voltage variation and harvest energy from energized conductors such as appliance cords and high-voltage power transmission lines and equipment.
Contact Information rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, qlxu@berkeley.edu, igorpapa@eecs.berkeley.edu,
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN505
Project Title Deployment of Wireless Stick-On Circuit Breaker PEM AC Sensors for the Smart Grid
Status Continuing
Funding Source State
Keywords Power; Passive Proximity Electric Sensors; MEMS; Wireless; Energy Scavenging
Researchers Richard Xu
Abstract The electric power consumption of the entire Berkeley campus ranges from 18MW to 30MW,of which Cory Hall, the Electrical Engineering building, comprises from 3% to 5%. Presently, the power entering the building is metered monthly at the primary terminals of its 12.4 kilovolt distribution step-down transformer. In order to increase energy efficiency and to experiment with, and further develop, our miniature electrical sensors, we are in the process of installing proximity sub-metering of loads accessed through a standard circuit breaker panel to which miniature proximity-based current sensors have been attached. We have made a two-minute video, available from the BSAC website, demonstrating the sensors in action.
Contact Information rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu,qlxu@berkeley.edu, igorpapa@eecs.berkeley.edu,paprotny@uic.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN746 New Project
Project Title Liquid Heterojunction Sensors
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Microfluidics, flexible, sensor, hetero-junction
Researchers Kevin Chen, Hiroki Ota
Abstract In recent years, mechanically deformable devices and sensors have been widely explored for various applications such as paper-thin displays and electronic skin for prosthetics and robotics. Liquids are extremely deformable and have shown promise for these applications, with previous works demonstrating pressure sensors with the ability to be stretched by up to 250% before failure. However, current technology is limited to a single liquid material as liquids tend to intermix when placed together, limiting the range of sensors that can be achieved. Here, in this work, we show a new concept for a liquid-liquid “hetero-junction” temperature sensor with liquid InGaSn metal as a passive interconnect and an imidazolium based ionic liquid as the active sensing element. By proper choice of liquids and design of the liquid-liquid interface, we are able to prevent the liquids from mixing, leading to exciting prospects for more complex liquid based flexible electronics.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu, hiroki.ota@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN747 New Project
Project Title Fully Printed High Performance Flexible Electronics
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Flexible, printed electronics, thin film transistor
Researchers Kevin Chen
Abstract A flexible sensor network able to conform to nonplanar surfaces is very important for such applications as prosthetics and large area touch panels. In many of these applications, an extremely large coverage area is necessary, making traditional fabrication methods such as photolithography and even shadow mask technology unfeasible approaches. In this project, we aim to solve this problem by creating flexible sensor networks via gravure printing technology. Carbon nanotubes are solution deposited onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate upon which source/drain, gate dielectric, and gate metal are aligned and printed on using a plate to roll reverse gravure printer. Using this method, which can be easily transferred to a large scale roll to roll printing setup, we are able to achieve high performance thin film transistors (TFT) with mobilities of up to 9 cm2/Vs, the highest recorded for a fully printed TFT. Additionally, we are able to obtain yields of over 90% in an ambient environment outside of a clean room. Various sensors can then be integrated into the active matrix backplane to achieve a fully printed flexible sensor network.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN698
Project Title Multifunctional Electronic Skin
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Sensors, Flexible, Nanomaterials,
Researchers Kevin Chen
Abstract Flexible sensor networks have promising applications in fields such as touch sensors for touch sensitive prosthetics and wearable medical diagnosis devices. In this project, we aim to fabricate a multifunctional “e-skin” capable of detecting multiple forms of stimuli including light and pressure, so as to be able to mimic the human skin and beyond. Polyimide is spun onto a silicon wafer upon which traditional CMOS technology is used to fabricate flexible thin film transistors based on solution deposited carbon nanotube networks. Various types of sensors are then integrated to create a 16×16 sensor network array. After fabrication, the e-skin can be easily delaminated from the silicon wafer and both pressure and light can then be mapped out by attaching the flexible e-skin to a readout board via a flexible PCB board.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN748 New Project
Project Title Highly-sensitive electronic-whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle composite films
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Electronic whiskers, composites
Researchers Zhibin Yu
Abstract Mammalian whiskers present an important class of tactile sensors that complement the functionalities of skin for detecting wind with high sensitivity and navigation around local obstacles. Here, we developed electronic whiskers based on highly tunable composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles that are patterned on high-aspect ratio elastic fibers. The nanotubes form a conductive network matrix with excellent bendability, while nanoparticle loading enhances the conductivity and endows the composite with high strain sensitivity. The resistivity of the composites is highly sensitive to strain with a pressure sensitivity of up to ~8 %/Pa for the whiskers, which is >10× higher than all previously reported capacitive or resistive pressure sensors.
Contact Information yuzhibin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN752 New Project
Project Title Highly Efficient and Stable Photocathode for Solar Hydrogen Production
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Solar water splitting, hydrogen fuel, thin film
Researchers Yongjing Lin, Corsin Battaglia, Joel W. Ager
Abstract Solar hydrogen production by photoelectrochemical water splitting holds great promise for efficient solar energy harvesting and storage. To achieve spontaneous water splitting, developing efficient photoelectrodes with both high photovoltage and high photocurrent is highly desirable. However, current studied photocathodes such as p-Si, p-Cu2O and p-GaP have photovoltage lower than half of 1.23 V, the minimum voltage required for water splitting. To overcome these challenges, we are currently developing a photocathode using amorphous Si thin film with TiO2 encapsulation layer for efficient solar hydrogen production. With platinum as catalyst, a photocurrent onset potential of 0.93 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode potential and saturation photocurrent of 11.6 mA/cm2 are measured. This low-cost photocathode with high photo-voltage and current is a highly promising candidate for future tandem water splitting cells.
Contact Information linyj632@gmail.com
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN755 New Project
Project Title Carrier selective oxide contacts for silicon electronics
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords silicon, oxides, solar cells, sensors, transistors
Researchers Corsin Battaglia, Xingtian Yin, Steven Chuang, Thomas Rembert, Hiroshi Shiraki
Abstract Efficient carrier selective contacts are key to electronic devices based on silicon including sensors, microelectromechanical systems, field effect transistors and photovoltaics. We explore substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x<3) as a dopant-free, hole-selective contact for silicon. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate a silicon solar cell with a MoOx hole contact delivering a high open-circuit voltage of 711 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 18.8%. Due to the wide band gap of MoOx, we observe a substantial gain in photocurrent of 1.9 mA/cm2 in the ultraviolet and visible part of the solar spectrum, when compared to a p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon emitter of a traditional silicon heterojunction cell. With a high workfunction exceeding those of elemental metals, MoOx presents an important opportunity to contact holes in inorganic semiconductor materials beyond silicon including III-V semiconductors, carbon-based nanomaterials and layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors.
Contact Information corsin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN704
Project Title Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on Metal
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Solar Cells, Photovoltaics, Indium Phosphide, InP, VLS, Thin Film
Researchers Rehan R. Kapadia, Zhibin Yu, Maxwell Zheng, Corsin Battaglia, Peter Lobaccaro
Abstract Here, we develop a technique that enables direct growth of III-V materials on non-epitaxial substrates. Here, by utilizing a planar liquid phase template, we extend the VLS growth mode to enable polycrystalline indium phosphide (InP) thin film growth on Mo foils.
Contact Information r.kapadia@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN694
Project Title Monolayer Semiconductor Devices
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Monolayer; Layered chalcogenide; Electronics
Researchers Mahmut Tosun, Hui Fang, Steven Chuang
Abstract Monolayer chalcogenides have recently been shown promising for future scaled electronics. We've reported high performance field-effect transistors based on single layered (thickness, ~0.7 nm) WSe2 as the active channel with chemically doped source/drain contacts and high-κ gate dielectrics. The top-gated monolayer transistors exhibit a high effective hole (electron) mobility of ~250 (110) cm^2/Vs, perfect subthreshold swing of ~60 mV/dec, and ION/IOFF of >10^6 at room temperature. Special attention is given to lowering the contact resistance for electron or hole injection by degenerate surface dopings. The results here present a promising material system and device architecture for monolayer transistors with excellent characteristics.
Contact Information huifang@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN723
Project Title Organ-on-a-chip for Personalized Medicine Development
Status Continuing
Funding Source NIH
Keywords Organ-on-a-chip, Induced pluripotent stem cell, human-on-a-chip, microfluidics
Researchers SoonGweon Hong, Sang Hun Lee
Abstract A new era of drug discovery and development is being marched with the concept of “personalized medicine”. “Organ-on-a-chips or OCs” are one of the movements, which are to recapitulate 3-dimensional organ models in microfluidic culture platforms. By combining iPSC-derived human organ cells, individuals’ physiological response can be investigated so that the needs of animal model, inadequately representing human physiology, will be vanished in drug development in a near future. Herein,we are challenging the development of liver- and heart-on-a-chip for the two organs most frequently facing drug failure issues in the current market. Also we envision to expand the types of OCs to brain, muscle, gut and lung, in order to ultimately represent physiological response of human on a chip. Based on personalized iPSC-derived cells, investigations on individual OCs as well as interconnection between OCs will bring meaningful inquiries in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in personalized medicine.
Contact Information gweon1@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN730
Project Title Microfluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Status Continuing
Funding Source Foundation
Keywords Microfluidic, Blood plasma separation, Point-of-care
Researchers Jun Ho Son, Sang Hun Lee
Abstract Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have been widely developed for the rapid detection of infectious diseases such as HIV, TB and Malaria. Blood plasma separation is an initial step for most blood-based diagnostics. Although, centrifuge method is the classical bench- top technique, it is time and labor intensive, and therefore, automation and integration of blood plasma separation in the LOC device is ideal for POC diagnostics. Here, we propose a novel microfluidic blood plasma separation device for POC diagnostics. This investigation will hopefully lead to a simple and reliable blood plasma separation device that can be utilized by individuals with minimal training in resource-limited environments for POC diagnostics.
Contact Information jhson78@berkeley.edu, sanghun.lee@berkeley.edu, lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN727
Project Title On-Chip Single Molecule miRNA Detection for Cancer Diagnosis
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords miRNA, Detection, Cancer
Researchers Julian A. Diaz, Inhee Choi, Chi-Cheng Fu, Sang Hun Lee
Abstract Early stage cancer diagnosis may mean the difference between a successful or an ineffective treatment. Therefore, development of methods that allow the detection of premature signatures of cancer are necessary. Mature microRNAs are short non-coding RNAs strands (~18-21 nt) involved in gene regulation of eukaryotic cells. In cancer cells some miRNAs appear over or under expressed, and serve as a markers to signal the presence of these malignancies. MicroRNAs, however, are present in very low concentrations, thus sensitive and multiplexed methods that detect specific miRNAs are needed to enable the patient with timely and better treatment of this disease. Currently, we are developing a method that offers sensitive, fast, and multiplexed detection of miRNAs in blood samples. This method can be easily adapted to chip technology paving the way to recognize miRNAs without the need of either sample preparation or enzymatic/chemical modification. Due to the multiplexed and sensitive capabilities of our device, we also expect it to provide accurate cancer type characterization.
Contact Information jdiaz1@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN679
Project Title Digital Plasma Separation for One-Step Quantitative Nucleic Acid Detection
Status Continuing
Funding Source Foundation
Keywords point-of-care, diagnostics, microfluidics, rapid test, isothermal, amplification
Researchers Erh-Chia Yeh
Abstract We propose a one-step diagnostic device using isothermal nucleic acid detection to detect infectious diseases.
Contact Information erh-chia-yeh@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN480
Project Title AM Fitzgerald: MEMS Design, Prototyping, Modeling, Failure Prediction and Foundry Transfer
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords
Researchers Keith M. Jackson
Abstract A.M. Fitzgerald & Associates provides product development and technical consulting services to clients ranging from start-ups to companies in the Fortune 500. Our capabilities include MEMS/Microsystems design and fabrication, multiphysics finite element analysis, failure prediction, and foundry transfer. We are experts at developing MEMS devices and can design and build a finished device from sketched concepts. Via our RocketMEMS™ program, customers can get customized MEMS sensors built in proven standard foundry processes. Our clients benefit from rapid prototype fabrication thus reducing their time, cost and risk of product development, and speeding time-to-market.
Contact Information kmj@amfitzgerald.com,jhuggins@berkeley.edu
Advisor John M. Huggins

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN354
Project Title The Nanoshift Concept: Innovation through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication for MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean Technologies at the UC Berkeley NanoLab
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Nanoshift, nanolab, microlab, process, recharge, commercial
Researchers Ning Chen, Salah Uddin
Abstract Nanoshift, LLC is a privately-held Emerging Technology research and development company specializing in Bio-MEMS, MEMS, Microfluidics and Nanotechnologies. Nanoshift's talented team and use of flexible lab facilities provides high quality, flexible, custom services for process design, development, rapid prototyping, low-volume fabrication and consultation. Typical projects arrive from academics, government and industry; Nanoshift is positioned as the road map for the concept to commercialization process. Nanoshift collaborates with BSAC to make powerful resources available for BSAC members, such as offering valuable services and technical expertise to both academic and industrial members, while improving BSAC's visibility and funding.
Contact Information nchen@nanoshift.net, suddin@nanoshift.net
Advisor John M. Huggins

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN712
Project Title Bridging Research-to-Commercialization Gaps through Facilitated Intermediaries
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Commercialization,Industry,Managing Director,Executive Director,Nanoshift,AMFitzgerald,MIG,Standards,SBIR
Researchers John M. Huggins
Abstract This project aims to leverage private sector intermediaries to facilitate, measure,and report commercialization outcomes of Center activities. BSAC university-based precommercial research (“presearch” for short) has been successful in member recruiting and retention as measured by membership related research revenue for the center ($1.2M-$3M/year)and average longevity of members (~ 8 years). But members have increasingly had trouble bridging the gaps from “presearch” to manufacturable processes & devices. As MEMS processes and applications move mainstream, these gestation periods are dropping rapidly. Many members have, in our surveys and at IAB meetings, vocalized that we need to help bridge commercialization gaps and increase the speed of commercialization. Any such commercialization facilitation programs cannot compromise the fundamental research mission of the Center. We propose to do this with specialized or focused non- University agents who can facilitate the transition from laboratory proof of concept vehicles to precommercial prototypes to commercial production. These intermediaries will provide boundary spanning between university research and commercialization, including active participation in formalized multi-industrial participant university-based research projects with transition plans to university partners.
Contact Information jhuggins@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor John M. Huggins

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN735 New Project
Project Title Autonomous Microrobotic Systems
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Microrobotics, electrostatics, actuators, MEMS, autonomous sensors
Researchers Daniel Contreras, Daniel Drew, Brad Wheeler, David Burnett, Joseph Greenspun, Michael Lorek
Abstract Recent advances in MEMS technology have enabled a new generation of microrobotic engineering applications. This project aims at developing novel micro-scale actuation and transduction mechanisms for mobility. A motivation behind this research is the development of truly mobile, high resolution, and autonomous sensor networks. One of the key elements towards autonomy is the fusion of these mobility mechanisms with energy harvesting capabilities, including high-voltage solar arrays fabricated via novel processes. In addition, ultra-low power control and communications platforms must be designed with the constraints of a microrobotic system in mind.
Contact Information dscontreras@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S. J. Pister

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN744 New Project
Project Title Mr. Phelps' Motes: Self-Destructing Silicon
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Brad Wheeler, Joey Greenspun, Konlin Shen
Abstract Funded under the DARPA Vanishing Programmable Resources (VaPR) program, this project explores the fundamental issues associated with making wireless sensor nodes disappear after they have achieved their goal. Near-term goals include electro-chemical dissolution of circuit wiring, and XeF2 etch of the silicon substrate. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a single-chip mote capable of self-destruction on receipt of specific RF command or environmental change. "Mr. Phelps" reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission:_Impossible
Contact Information ksjp@berkeley.edu, brad.wheeler@berkeley.edu, pinxisimitu@gmail.com, konlin.shen@gmail.com, maharbiz
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Ana Arias, Michel M. Maharbiz, Vivek Subramanian

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN713
Project Title Ring GINA: Highly Miniaturized Ring-Format Wearable Mote
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Joseph Greenspun, David Burnett
Abstract Computer input devices such as mice and keyboards have remained largely unchanged since the dawn of the personal computer. The Ring GINA platform is capable of sensing and interpreting a user’s hand and finger movements to emulate and enhance the functions of these standard input devices. A wearable platform frees the user from the need to know hand position relative to a keyboard or mouse, and grants the ability to perform gestures in open space or on any surface. Here, a method is presented that utilizes these rings as a text input system. In moving forward, efforts are being focused on creating a library of gestures to perform additional tasks, as well as further miniaturizing the mote and ring.
Contact Information greenspun@eecs.berkeley.edu, db@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN683
Project Title OpenWSN: A Standards-Based Low-Power Wireless Development Environment
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Wireless Sensor Networks, Protocol Stack, Ultra Low Power, Embedded systems, 802.15.4e, 6LowPAN, CoAP
Researchers Tengfei Chang, Fabien Chraim, Kevin Weekly
Abstract The OpenWSN project is an open-source implementation of a fully standards-based protocol stack for capillary networks, rooted in the new IEEE802.15.4e Time Synchronized Channel Hopping standard. IEEE802.15.4e, coupled with Internet-of-Things standards, such as 6LoWPAN, RPL and CoAP, enables ultra-low power and highly reliable mesh networks which are fully integrated into the Internet. The resulting protocol stack will be cornerstone to the upcoming Machine-to-Machine revolution. OpenWSN is ported to numerous commercial available platforms from older 16-bit micro- controller to state-of-the-art 32-bit Cortex-M architectures. The tools developed around the low- power mesh networks include visualization and debugging software, a simulator to mimic OpenWSN networks on a PC, and the environment needed to connect those networks to the Internet. OpenWSN projects leads standardization efforts for ultra low power M2M networks while contributing with innovative protocols for scalable, distributed and energy efficient communications.
Contact Information tengfei.chang@eecs.berkeley.com, chraim@eecs.berkeley.edu, pister@eecs.berkeley.edu, qinwang@berkele
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN648
Project Title Fully-Integrated, Low Input Voltage, Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter for Energy Harvesting Applications
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords DC-DC Converter, Switched-Capacitor, Charge Pump, Energy Harvesting, Photovoltaics, Micropower
Researchers Michael C. Lorek
Abstract This project explores the design of a fully integrated, switched-capacitor DC-DC converter to convert small amounts of energy from photovoltaic or other low voltage energy sources. Clever bootstrapping techniques are used to ensure circuit startup without high-voltage or mechanical assists. Nanopower oscillator topologies are being investigated for minimum power and input voltage operation. Advanced timing schemes are used to minimize charge reversion loss and clock driver short circuit currents for increased efficiency. A boosted output voltage around 1.5V is targeted for compatibility with older CMOS technologies, offering a power advantage in heavily duty cycled applications where leakage is dominant. This work will enable the integration of CMOS circuitry and power supply on the same substrate for true single-chip, autonomous computing platforms.
Contact Information mlorek@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN705
Project Title Standard CMOS-Based, Fully Integrated, Stick-On Electricity Meters for Building Sub-Metering
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Michael C. Lorek
Abstract We propose the development and testing of a system of technologies to minimize the installed cost of electricity sub-metering in buildings. This system utilizes non-contact, self-calibrating voltage and current sensors and wireless communication to eliminate the need for installation by an electrician, installation of conduit and enclosures, and installation of wired communication infrastructure. Electricity sub-metering is a critical component for continuous commissioning, fault detection and diagnosis, demand response, and other energy efficiency opportunities.
Contact Information mlorek@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Steven Lanzisera

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN596
Project Title Smart Fence and Other Wireless Sensing Applications for Critical Industrial Environments
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Gas Monitoring, Mobile Gas Sensing, Valve Position Monitoring, Machine Vibration Sensing, WirelessHART, Wireless Sensor Networks
Researchers Fabien J. Chraim
Abstract Following the successful showcase of the Smart Fence technology, this project aims at using MEMS and Optical Sensors in combination with Low-Power radios to implement industrial wireless sensing applications. Using inertial sensors, valve position monitoring and machine vibration sensing are added for safeguarding both personnel and equipment. Finally, gas leak detection and localization is attempted using IR combustible gas sensors. This project is concerned both with the COTS-based hardware and software behind each application.
Contact Information chraim@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN745 New Project
Project Title Wafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube Based Neural Probes
Status New
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords
Researchers Konlin Shen
Abstract Current in-vivo methods of electrical recordings of the brain are hampered by low spatial resolution, invasiveness to the surrounding tissue, and scalability. Carbon nanotube based electrodes are ideal for intracellular neural recordings due to their small size and flexibility, allowing for higher density arrays and less damage to the brain. However, current methods for selective placement and alignment of carbon nanotubes cannot be done easily on a wafer scale. This project aims to solve this issue in order to create wafer-scale carbon nanotube based neural probes for intracellular recordings.
Contact Information konlin@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN716
Project Title Neural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic BrainMachine Interfaces
Status New
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords brain-machine interfaces, ultrasonic energy transfer and harvesting, backscatter communication
Researchers Dongjin Seo
Abstract A major hurdle in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is the lack of an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a substantial fraction of a primate lifetime. Recently, sub-mm implantable, wireless electromagnetic (EM) neural interfaces have been demonstrated in an effort to extend system longevity. However, EM systems do not scale down in size well due to the severe inefficiency of coupling radio waves at mm and sub-mm scales. We propose an alternative wireless power and data telemetry scheme using distributed, ultrasonic backscattering systems to record high frequency (~kHz) neural activity. Such systems will require two fundamental technology innovations: 1) thousands of 10 – 100 um scale, free-floating, independent sensor nodes, or neural dust, that detect and report local extracellular electrophysiological data via ultrasonic backscattering, and 2) a sub-cranial ultrasonic interrogator that establishes power and communication links with the neural dust. We performed the first in vitro experiments which verified that the predicted scaling effects follow theory and that the extreme efficiency of ultrasonic transmission can enable the scaling of the sensing nodes down to 10's of um. Such ultra-miniature as well as extremely compliant implantable neural interface would pave the way for both truly chronic BMI and massive scaling in the number of neural recordings from the nervous system.
Contact Information djseo@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN717
Project Title Proof of Concept: Self-Assembly of a Multi-Cellular Synthetic-Biological Hybrid
Status Completed
Funding Source Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Keywords synthetic biology, multicellular patterning, microfluidics, microbiorobotics
Researchers Tom J. Zajdel
Abstract This year-long proof of concept explores the interplay between bacterial communication circuits and the surface topology of the substrate they are on, to see if certain designed surface features can be made to trigger genetic development switches. Differentiation due to a diffusible chemical signal is central in the development of multicellular organisms. Success in replicating this strategy on a synthetic structure enables a spatially programmable consortium of bacterial cells. Our aims were to enable the self-assembly of multicellular microbial films on the surface of synthetic silicon and polymer forms to form hybrid constructs, generation of construct polarity in gene expression driven by the topology of the synthetic form, and size control of the assembled multicellular film. These achievements would enable our long term vision, which is to create a micro scale, programmable cellular-synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environments. These millimeter-scale constructs would be fabricated through synthetic biological self-assembly and will allow the seamless fusion of control techniques that rely on both gene expression and cell-level sensing, actuation and computation.
Contact Information zajdel@eecs.berkeley.edu, maharbiz@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN718
Project Title Direct Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular Robots
Status Continuing
Funding Source Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Keywords microbiorobotics, synthetic biology, biosensors, stochastic control, hybrid biological systems, bacterial electrophysiology
Researchers Tom J. Zajdel
Abstract We propose to design, fabricate and test a millimeter-scale, programmable cellular- synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environments. Three integrated technologies will make this possible: 1) two-way electron transfer between an electrode and E. coli for rapid communication between abiotic core and cells; 2) a flexible polymer + CMOS sensing and computation abiotic core; 3) synthetic cell adhesion genes which allow for patternable self-assembly of bacterial cells onto the abiotic substrate. If successful, this will be the first demonstration of a millimeter-scale synthetic autonomous multi- cellular hybrid with organic and man-made components. A primary goal of this work will be to enable abiotic/biotic two-way communication via electron transfer channels engineered into cells in contact with microelectrodes. We suggest that such a fusion would enable control techniques that rely on combinations of gene expression, cell- level sensing / actuation and CMOS digital computation.
Contact Information zajdel@eecs.berkeley.edu, maharbiz@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN714
Project Title Electronic Bandage for Wound Healing
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Wound Healing, Impedance Spectroscopy
Researchers Amy Liao, Monica Lin
Abstract Electrical stimulation has been shown to play a large role in the wound healing process by affecting angiogenesis, cell migration, antibacterial effects, etc. However, current electronic therapies have been limited to devices that can be safely and easily removed from patients because of the toxicity of the degradation products from the electrical components . Therefore, we propose a novel flexible "electronic bandage"ť that can be safely absorbed by the body. These bioresorbable systems will provide high-resolution, in-body mapping of the impedance field in the wound area in a minimally invasive way, providing significant knowledge and fundamental understanding of cell recovery in a number of medical procedures. These devices will also provide physicians with a way to monitor and eventually stimulate internal wound healing.
Contact Information amy.liao@berkeley.edu, monica.lin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN731
Project Title Flexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural Recording
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords neural recording, scalable, flexible, surgical robot, minimally invasive
Researchers Timothy L. Hanson
Abstract Current approaches to interfacing with the nervous system mainly rely on stiff electrode materials, which work remarkably well, but suffer degradation from chronic immune response due to mechanical impedance mismatch and blood-brain barrier disruption. This current technology also poses limits on recording depth, spacing, and location. In this project we aim to ameliorate these issues by developing a system of very fine and flexible electrodes for recording from nervous tissue, a robotic system for manipulating and implanting these electrodes, and a means for integrating electrodes with neural processing chips. We have fabricated three versions of the electrodes, and have demonstrated their manual and automated insertion into an agarose brain tissue proxy using a notched tungsten needle. We have also fabricated and tested in agarose three revisions of the inserter robot. The most recent inserter robot design uses a replaceable electrode cartridge to which electrodes are mounted; these electrodes are made on a 5um thick polyimide substrate with a parylene peel-away backing. The parylene backing holds the fine wires and keeps them from tangling until they are inserted, and provides a more robust means of handling and mounting the structures. We hope to test the full system in rats within 2 months. Simultaneously we are working with BSAC members Will Biederman, Dan Yeager, and other members of the Rabaey group to make electrodes compatible with the neural recording and stimulation chip they have fabricated.
Contact Information tlh24@phy.ucsf.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN726
Project Title Transparent Microelectrode Arrays for Hybrid Experiments in Neuroscience
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords MEMS, neural, optogenetics, electrocorticography
Researchers Brian Pepin
Abstract Optogenetics techniques that have been developed over the previous decade allow cell-type specific optical stimulation of neurons in-vivo. However, it remains a challenge to perform simultaneous electrical recording while providing optical stimulation due to photoelectric artifact generated at the microelectrode recording sites. This project aims to address this challenge by developing bio- compatible microelectrode arrays with optically transparent recording sites. Current devices are optimized for performing electrocorticography (ECoG) experiments and use Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO, a transparent conductive oxide) as the electrode material. Preliminary characterization of the arrays indicate electrode impedances as low as 100kOhm and show no photoelectric artifact. These micro- ECoG (uECoG) arrays are currently being validated in a variety of novel hybrid neuroscience experiments combining optical stimulation with electrical recording, both at Berkeley and with collaborators at other universities.
Contact Information pepinb@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN573
Project Title Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Arrays for Chronic Stimulation and Recording in Insects
Status Continuing
Funding Source State
Keywords carbon fiber microelectrode electrode array insect electrophysiology chronic stimulation recording fly beetle
Researchers Travis L. Massey
Abstract This project aims to create an array of carbon fibers for insect electrophysiology.
Contact Information tlmassey@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN571
Project Title Implantable Microengineered Neural Interfaces for Studying and Controlling Insects
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords insect, vision, neural interface, micro aerial vehicle
Researchers Joshua van Kleef, Keegan Mann
Abstract Our goal is to control the flight of an insect by hijacking its sensory systems. Although significant funding has gone into developing micro air vehicles (MAVs, wingspan< 15cm), flying insects still significantly outperform the most sophisticated flying robots in efficiency, flight time, stability and maneuverability. The restrictions that such a small spatial scale places on the amount of energy that can be stored on-board and on actuator efficiency, means this gap is expected to continue for some years to come. We are therefore pursuing a novel MAV design that uses an actual flying insect. We aim to produce small insect backpacks capable of receiving commands remotely and providing power to a combination of neural and optical stimulators. The patterns of stimulation will allow us to trick the insects motor-sensory system into responding to fictitious self-movements. We aim to use these ‘ghost’ stimuli to remote-control the insect’s flight while at the same time capitalizing on their remarkable natural flying abilities. The project has now advanced to testing devices in free flight and optimizing the stimulation parameters.
Contact Information vankleef@berkeley.edu, dancohen@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN699
Project Title A Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale Electrophysiology
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Neuroengineering, Nanoprobes, Optogenetics, ASIC, BioMEMS
Researchers Maysamreza Chamanzar
Abstract Truly large-scale electrophysiology simultaneous recording of thousands of individual neurons in multiple brain areas remains an elusive goal of neuroscience. The traditional approach of studying single neurons in isolation assumes that the brain can be understood one component at a time. However, in order to fully understand the function of whole brain circuits, it is essential to observe the interactions of large numbers of neurons in multiple brain areas simultaneously with high spatiotemporal resolution. This project will establish a complete system for multi-scale electrophysiology in awake, freely behaving mice, using state-of-the-art nano neural interfaces comprising of tiny silicon probes integrated with on- chip optical waveguides and compliant monolithic polymer cables connected to a unique light-weight head-mounted recording system built around a commercially available application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been custom designed for electrophysiological recordings, combining signal amplification, filtering, signal multiplexing, and digital sampling on a single chip. We demonstrate the high-resolution excitation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons imaged on a two-photon microscope by evoking action potentials in different parts of cortex. The entire process, including post-fabrication system integration, has been designed to leverage existing consumer manufacturing processes, making our probe technology mass- producible and widely accessible at low cost.
Contact Information chamanzar@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN518
Project Title Synthetic Turing Patterns
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords synthetic biology, pattern generation, developmental biology
Researchers Justin Hsia, William J. Holtz
Abstract Understanding symmetry breaking is at the heart of developmental biology, from the origins of polarity, cellular differentiations, and how the leopard got its spots, as well as crucial to the future engineering of complex cellular ensembles. Alan Turing proposed a simple mathematical model that explains how the reaction-diffusion mechanism can cause an initially uniform concentration in an ensemble of cells to spontaneously become non-uniform and form patterns (Turing patterns). To date, no true synthetic Turing patterns have been created using gene networks, so our goal is to design and implement the first synthetic gene circuit that can spontaneously produce patterning via diffusion-driven instability in an ensemble of cells (E. coli). In addition, the main engine driving Turing pattern formation is a robust nonlinear circuit, such as a bistable or oscillatory network. Creating these nonlinear circuits will be beneficial both as a major step in the eventual creation of Turing pattern generators as well as modular circuits for synthetic biology.
Contact Information jhsia@eecs.berkeley.edu, arcak@eecs.berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Murat Arcak

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN599
Project Title MEMS Electronic Compass: Three-axis Magnetometer
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Vashwar T. Rouf, Mo Li
Abstract The goal of this is project is to develop a low-power three axis MEMS magnetic sensor suitable for use as an electronic compass in smart phones and portable electronics. Our objective is to achieve a resolution of 200 nT/rt Hz and power consumption of 5 mW/axis with DC power supply of 3.3V. To enable co-integration with a 3-axis accelerometer, we seek to optimize sensor performance without the need for a vacuum seal. Although past devices designed by our group have demonstrated that our resolution goal is reachable, these devices suffered from dc offset larger than Earth's field and required an external programmable oscillator for operation. Here, we aim to reduce offset by two orders of magnitude and develop self-oscillation loops to excite the sensor at its natural frequency.
Contact Information vtrouf@ucdavis.edu,dahorsley@ucdavis.edu,moxli@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN466
Project Title Aluminum Nitride Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Aluminum Nitride, Piezoelectric, Ultrasound Transducers, MEMS
Researchers Ofer Rozen
Abstract Characterize air-coupled aluminum nitride piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) for use in range finding and gesture recognition applications. MEMS Aluminum Nitride (AlN) piezoelectric sensor technology has been chosen due to the relatively simple deposition process and compatibility with CMOS technology which enables the potential integration of the sensor and drive electronics on the same chip. Guided by both analytic and finite element models the optimum design parameters are chosen to obtain the desired resonant frequency, bandwidth, and maximum output sound pressure for the transmitter, and maximum sensitivity for the receiver. We are currently exploring several conceptual designs, using different fabrication processes, to improve robustness while maintaining the performance.
Contact Information orozen@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN628
Project Title High Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (PMUTs)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords piezoelectric, ultrasound transducers, medical imaging, fingerprint sensors
Researchers Yipeng Lu, Hao-Yen Tang, Stephanie Fung
Abstract The goal of the current research is to design and fabricate high frequency piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs) for medical imaging and fingerprint sensors, which requires a narrow acoustic beam and high transmitting and receiving sensitivities. The simple process is developed to enable PMUT array with a high fill factor and small size of devices. The fabricated PZT and AlN PMUTs are characterized in mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Further characterizations of acoustic beam size and pulse echo imaging are to be done for final demonstration.
Contact Information yplu@ucdavis.edu,dahorsley@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN603
Project Title Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS, Gyroscope, Silicon Wet Etch, Diamond
Researchers Amir Heidari, Chen Yang, Hadi Najar, Parsa Taheri
Abstract The goal of this project is to realize a micro rate-integrating gyroscope that produces an output signal proportional to rotation angle rather than rotation rate. If successful, this device would eliminate the need of integrating the gyroscope's rate output to obtain the angle. Realizing a micro rate-integrating gyroscope can be achieved by fabricating hemispherical resonating shells with extremely close frequency matching (delta f < 10 Hz) and a very high quality factor (Q > 1 million). Structures must be highly axisymmetric and micro-finished to nanometer scale roughness.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, aheidari@ucdavis.edu, chenyang@berkeley.edu, hnajar@ucdavis.edu, ptaheri@ucda
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN684
Project Title Integrated Microgyroscopes with Improved Scale-Factor and Bias Stability
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords gyroscope, inertial sensor, signal processing, CMOS
Researchers Jason Su, Sarah Nitzan
Abstract Despite their small size, low power dissipation, and low cost, the large bias and scale factor errors of current MEMS inertial sensors preclude using them for dead reckoning navigation. Although these shortcomings can be overcome with precision manufacturing and extensive calibration, such solutions suffer from high cost and secondary effects such as long term drift. Presently, the use of in-situ calibration techniques in MEMS sensors is limited to the electronic interfaces, where they are instrumental for reducing drift arising from electronic components. This project extends the benefit of electronic background calibration to the MEMS transducer to continuously reduce scale factor and bias errors arising from manufacturing tolerances and drift.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, sarah.nitzan@gmail.com, thssu@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN655
Project Title Materials for High Quality-Factor Resonating Gyroscopes
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS gyroscopes, inertial sensors, surface micromachining, High Q materials, CVD diamond
Researchers Hadi Najar, Amir Heidari, Chen Yang
Abstract This project will investigate new materials suitable for achieving Q-factors in excess of 1 million in resonating gyroscopes. Experimental studies of dissipation caused by thermoelastic and surface losses will be performed using resonator test structures. The effect of doping and microstructure is explored on CVD diamond MEMS resonators. Hundreds of surface micromachined double ended tuning fork (DETF) resonators were fabricated in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films deposited using hot filament CVD technique with varying levels of Boron doping. Higher boron doping resulted in reduced Q due to defect losses. Moreover, thermal conductivities of diamond films were measured using TDTR technique for further mapping of theory and experiment.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, hnajar@ucdavis.edu, chenyang@berkeley.edu, aheidari@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN734 New Project
Project Title Package-Derived Influences on Micromechanical Resonator Stability
Status New
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords vacuum, encapsulation, hermetic, package, stress, finite element analysis
Researchers Divya N. Kashyap
Abstract Vacuum encapsulation of RF disk and beam resonators is necessary in order to maintain high Q and frequency stability. However, the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the package material and the substrate lead to package induced stress. This project aims to explore the effects of this stress on the frequency response of the resonators using finite element analysis (FEA) software. Simulations performed on resonators packaged using conventional hermetic encapsulation techniques such as anodic and fusion bonding will be compared to that of an in situ packaging method where the resonators are housed in a polysilicon shell.
Contact Information dnk003@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN540
Project Title Temperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords µmechanical resonator, electrical stiffness, compensation, frequency drift
Researchers Alper Ozgurluk
Abstract This project aims to suppress temperature-induced frequency shift in high frequency micromechanical resonators targeted for channel-select filter and oscillator applications. A novel electrical stiffness design technique is utilized to compensate for thermal drift, in which a temperature-dependent electrical stiffness counteracts the resonator’s intrinsic dependence on temperature caused mainly by Young’s modulus temperature dependence.
Contact Information ozgurluk@eecs.berkeley.edu, ctnguyen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN359
Project Title Micromechanical Disk Resonator-Based Oscillators
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS, Oscillators
Researchers Thura Lin Naing, Tristan Rocheleau
Abstract This project aims to achieve micromechanical-based frequency synthesizer components that meet or exceed the requirements of the GSM standard. Towards these goals, this project investigates short- term stability of MEMS-based oscillators, particularly, phase noise and acceleration sensitivity. In addition to providing a highly accurate, on-chip frequency reference, a fully-integrated oscillator can achieve greater stability (particularly acceleration sensitivity) and far less power consumption than any comparable off-chip oscillator. In the process of achieving a fully-integrated frequency synthesizer, much of the research is expected to focus on development of integrated resonators-ASIC oscillators, as well as other needed components such as MEMS-based frequency dividers.
Contact Information thura@eecs.berkeley.edu, tristan@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen, Elad Alon

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN534
Project Title Fully-Integrated Micromechanical Clock Oscillator
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Oscillator, 32kHz, RTC, Real Time Clock, Fully Integrated MEMS
Researchers Henry G. Barrow
Abstract This project aims to develop a fully integrated micromechanical clock oscillator which outperforms current quartz-based clock oscillators in terms of both size and cost. A 32-kHz micromechanical resonator with a temperature coefficient better than 10 ppm over the commercial temperature range will act as the oscillator's reference. In addition, this oscillator will utilize an integrated fabrication process above modern transistor circuits in order to minimize device footprint and production expense.
Contact Information hbarrow@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN707
Project Title High-Order Micromechanical Electronic Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS, micromechanical, filter, high-order, bandpass, rolloff, stopband, rejection
Researchers Henry G. Barrow
Abstract This project aims to develop multi-resonator micromechanical electronic filters for use in communication systems requiring bandpass filters with sharp rolloffs and large stopband rejections. A complete analysis of the design, fabrication and testing of filters comprised of 2-8 micromechanical resonators coupled by flexural mode springs will establish a greater understanding this exciting MEMS device. In addition, the implementation of an automated tuning scheme will provide complete corrective control over the filter’s passband by negating the effects of fabrication error.
Contact Information hbarrow@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN433
Project Title A Micromechanical Power Converter
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Power Converter, MEMS Switch
Researchers Yang Lin, Ruonan Liu
Abstract The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate a switched-mode power converter (e.g., a charge pump) using micromechanical switching elements that allow substantially higher voltages and potentially higher conversion efficiencies than transistor-switch based counterparts.
Contact Information liur@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN435
Project Title A Micromechanical Power Amplifier
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS switch, switching mode power amplifier, MEMS resonator
Researchers Wei-Chang Li
Abstract This overall project aims to demonstrate methods for amplifying signals with higher efficiency compared to transistor circuitry using strictly mechanical means for ultra-low-power signal processing applications.
Contact Information wcli@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN434
Project Title A Micromechanical RF Channelizer
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords micromechanical, RF, filter, mixer, channel selection, channelizer, ALD, capacitive gap scaling
Researchers Mehmet Akgul
Abstract Vibrating mechanical tank components, such as crystal and SAW resonators, are widely used for frequency selection in communication systems because of their high Q and exceptional stability. However, being off-chip components, these devices pose an important bottleneck against the ultimate miniaturization and performance of wireless transceivers. This project aims to explore the use of capacitively transduced micromechanical circuits to realize micromechanical mixer-filters with reconfigurable attributes. With their substantial size, cost and performance advantages, these devices can be used to realize a bank of tunable/switchable micromechanical filters for multi-band RF channel selection. By replacing all off-chip components with micromachined passive elements, micromechanical mixer-filters offer an alternative set of strategies for transceiver miniaturization and improvement. In the long term, this overall project aims to demonstrate an RF channelizer utilizing micromechanical elements in its signal path, exclusively, that presents one of the keys to eventually realizing a cognitive radio.
Contact Information akgul@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN682
Project Title Strong I/O Coupled High-Q Micromechanical Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Robert A. Schneider
Abstract This project applies some of the Q-factor improvement techniques currently used on capacitive resonators to realize better piezoelectric ones, thus enabling new narrowband filter and oscillator applications. Capacitive-piezo transduction provides a clear path for demonstrating low motional impedance (10-1000 Ohm) and high-Q (Q~10,000) AlN resonators at VHF and UHF frequencies, which notably possess much stronger coupling than capacitive resonators. Greatly improved Q-factors, afforded through capacitive-piezoelectric transduction, enable such AlN resonators to achieve higher kt^2-Q figures of merit than traditional AlN resonator counterparts having contacting electrodes. While resonator optimization is a necessary step that this project takes, the long range goal of this effort is to mechanically couple many such resonators to realize high-order, self-switchable, AlN, channel-select filters with fractional bandwidths of 0.1-0.3%, insertion losses of less than 2- dB, stop-band rejection exceeding 50-dB, and handling capability for high out-of-band and in-band power. Such work is nearing fruition.
Contact Information bschneid@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN676
Project Title Q-boosted Optomechanical Oscillators
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Turker Beyazoglu, Alejandro Grine, Tristan Rocheleau, Niels Quack
Abstract This project aims to demonstrate Radiation Pressure driven Optomechanical Oscillators (RP-OMOs) with low phase noise and low power operation suitable for various applications in optical and RF communications. In particular, chip scale atomic clocks with low power consumption can be realized by replacing its power-hungry quartz-based microwave synthesizer with the proposed RP-OMO structure. The Q-boosted RP-OMO design approach of this work makes it possible to optimize both optical and mechanical design to simultaneously reduce the phase noise and threshold power of these oscillators while providing electromechanical coupling for electrical output and voltage controlled frequency tuning, as needed for the intended CSAC application.
Contact Information turker@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen, Ming C. Wu

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN701
Project Title Bridged Micromechanical Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Micromechanical Filters, High-order Filters,
Researchers Jalal Naghsh Nilchi
Abstract The overall project aims to explore the use of bridging between non-adjacent resonators to generate loss poles in the filter response toward better filter shape factor, sharper passband-to- stopband roll-off and better stopband rejection.
Contact Information jalal.naghsh.nilchi@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN709
Project Title Tunable & Switchable Micromechanical RF Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords micromechanical resonators, RF filters, channel selection, wideband filter
Researchers Lingqi Wu
Abstract This project aims to explore the use of on-chip capacitively transduced micromechanical resonators to realize RF filters with substantial size and performance advantages. With their extremely high quality factor in UHF range and strong coupling coefficient enabled by nanometer electrode-to-resonator gap spacings, capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators should be able to realize both banks of narrowband filter for reconfigurable RF channel selection and wideband filters targeting fast data transmission.
Contact Information wulingqi@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen