Research Review Project Abstracts (Public)

March 11-13, Berkeley, California

Report printed on Monday 25th 2015f May 2015 10:42:01 AM

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Number of records: 97
RESEARCH THRUSTPOSTER #PROJECT ID
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PROJECT TITLEAdvisor
Physical Sensors & Devices1BPN783Low Power Conductometric Soot Sensor With Fast Self-Regeneration New ProjectRoya Maboudian
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging2BPN786NanoPlasmonics for Sensing and Energy New ProjectRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices3BPN790Low power microheater based sensing platform for breath analysis New ProjectRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro, Willi Mickelson
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices4BPN762Microheater-Based Platform for Low Power Combustible Gas SensingRoya Maboudian, Willi Mickelson, Alex Zettl
Physical Sensors & Devices5BPN424Silicon Carbide Nanomaterials for Harsh Environment ApplicationsRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust6BPN767MEMS-Based Tunable Channel-Selecting Super-Regenerative RF TransceiversClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust7BPN359Micromechanical Disk Resonator-Based OscillatorsClark T.-C. Nguyen, Elad Alon
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust8BPN540Temperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
Package, Process & Microassembly9BPN734Package-Derived Influences on Micromechanical Resonator StabilityClark T.-C. Nguyen
Physical Sensors & Devices10BPN534Fully-Integrated Micromechanical Clock OscillatorClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust11BPN707Automated Passband Tuning of High-Order Microelectromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
Physical Sensors & Devices12BPN433A Micromechanical Power ConverterClark T.-C. Nguyen
Physical Sensors & Devices13BPN435A Micromechanical Power AmplifierClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust14BPN682Strong I/O Coupled High-Q Micromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust15BPN676Q-Boosted Optomechanical OscillatorsClark T.-C. Nguyen, Ming C. Wu
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust16BPN701Bridged Micromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust17BPN709Tunable & Switchable Micromechanical RF FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust18BPN683OpenWSN: A Standards-Based Low-Power Wireless Development EnvironmentKristofer S.J. Pister
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust19BPN789Reconfigurable, Wearable Sensors to Enable Long-Duration Circadian Biomedical Studies New ProjectKristofer S.J. Pister
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust21BPN744Self-Destructing SiliconKristofer S.J. Pister, Michel M. Maharbiz
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust22BPN735Autonomous Microrobotic SystemsKristofer S. J. Pister
Physical Sensors & Devices23BPN768Plug-Through Energy Monitor for Wall Outlet Electrical DevicesKristofer S.J. Pister
Physical Sensors & Devices24BPN705Standard CMOS-Based, Fully Integrated, Stick-On Electricity Meters for Building Sub-MeteringKristofer S.J. Pister, Steven Lanzisera
Physical Sensors & Devices25BPN608FM GyroscopeBernhard E. Boser
BioMEMS26BPN649Magnetic Particle Flow CytometerBernhard E. Boser
BioMEMS27BPN685Real-Time Intraoperative Fluorescent Imager for Microscopic Residual Tumor in Breast CancerBernhard E. Boser, Mekhail Anwar
Physical Sensors & Devices28BPN722Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor on a ChipBernhard E. Boser
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging29BPN665Frequency Modulated Laser Source for 3D ImagingBernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Eli Yablonovitch, Connie J. Chang-Hasnain
Physical Sensors & Devices30BPN764Untethered Stress-Engineered MEMS MicroFlyersIgor Paprotny
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust31BPN392Mobile Airborne Particulate Matter Monitor for Cellular DeploymentRichard M. White, Lara Gundel, Igor Paprotny
Physical Sensors & Devices32BPN738Sensor Instrumentation to Improve Safety of U.S. Underground Coal MinesRichard M. White, Igor Paprotny, Paul K. Wright, Lara Gundel
Physical Sensors & Devices33BPN697Natural Gas Pipeline ResearchRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust34RMW29Electric Power Sensing for Demand ResponseRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright
Microfluidics35BPN7873D-Printed Molds for Rapid Assembly of PDMS-based Microfluidic Devices New ProjectLiwei Lin
Microfluidics36BPN7743D Printed Integrated Microfluidic CircuitryLiwei Lin, Luke P. Lee, Ryan D. Sochol
Microfluidics37BPN775Integrated Microfluidic Circuitry via Optofluidic LithographyLiwei Lin, Luke P. Lee, Ryan D. Sochol
Microfluidics38BPN706Single-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic LithographyLiwei Lin
Micropower39BPN782Direct-write nanofibers for flexible energy storage New ProjectLiwei Lin
Physical Sensors & Devices40BPN784Aluminum Gallium Nitride 2DEG Sensors and Devices New ProjectLiwei Lin
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices41BPN736Atomic Layer Deposition Ruthenium Oxide SupercapacitorsLiwei Lin
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices42BPN672Solar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water SplittingLiwei Lin
Micropower43BPN737Graphene-Based Microliter-Scale Microbial Fuel CellsLiwei Lin
Micropower44BPN7423D Carbon-Based Materials for Electrochemical ApplicationsLiwei Lin
Physical Sensors & Devices45BPN743Highly Responsive pMUTsLiwei Lin
Wireless, RF & Smart Dust46BPN574On-Chip Micro-InductorLiwei Lin
Physical Sensors & Devices47BPN772Graphene for Flexible and Tunable Room Temperature Gas SensorsLiwei Lin
Microfluidics48BPN778Single-cell MicroRNA Quantification for Gene Regulation Heterogeneity Study New ProjectLuke P. Lee
Microfluidics49BPN794Bubble-free Microfluidic PCR New ProjectLuke P. Lee
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices50BPN727On-Chip Single Molecule miRNA Detection for Cancer DiagnosisLuke P. Lee
Microfluidics51BPN773Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Hepatocytes (hiPSC-HPs)-based Organs on ChipLuke Lee
Microfluidics52BPN730Microfluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care DiagnosticsLuke P. Lee
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging53BPN791Integrated Photobioreactor with Optical Excitation Membranes (iPOEMs) for Efficient Photosynthetic Light Harvesting New ProjectLuke P. Lee
Microfluidics54BPN679Portable Microfluidic Pumping System for Point-Of-Care DiagnosticsLuke P. Lee
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging55BPN703Directly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light EmissionMing C. Wu
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging56BPN721MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) Component Fabrication, Design, and CharacterizationMing C. Wu
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging57BPN788Optical Phased Array for LIDAR New ProjectMing C. Wu
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging58BPN75150x50 Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch with Microsecond Response TimeMing C. Wu
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging59BPN609Ultra-Sensitive Photodetectors on Silicon PhotonicsMing C. Wu
NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging60BPN458Optical Antenna-Based nanoLEDMing C. Wu, Ali Javey
Microfluidics61BPN552Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting)Ming C. Wu
Microfluidics62BPN733Optoelectronic Tweezers for Long-Term Single Cell CultureMing C. Wu, Song Li
Package, Process & Microassembly63BPN354The Nanoshift Concept: Innovation through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication of MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean TechnologiesJohn M. Huggins
Package, Process & Microassembly64BPN712Bridging Research-to-Commercialization Gaps In an Industry/ University EcosystemJohn M. Huggins,Ali Javey,Kristofer S.J.Pister
Physical Sensors & Devices65BPN655Materials for High Quality-Factor Resonating GyroscopesDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices66BPN7813-Axis MEMS Gyroscope New ProjectDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices67BPN603Micro Rate-Integrating Gyroscope New ProjectDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices68BPN684Integrated Microgyroscopes with Improved Scale-Factor and Bias StabilityDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices69BPN599MEMS Electronic Compass: Three-Axis MagnetometerDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices70BPN785Scandium-doped AlN for MEMS New ProjectDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices71BPN466Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound TransducersDavid A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices72BPN628Novel Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Based on High-Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUTs)David A. Horsley
Physical Sensors & Devices73BPN780Impedance Spectroscopy to Monitor Fracture Healing New ProjectMichel M. Maharbiz
Physical Sensors & Devices74BPN714Impedance Sensing Device to Monitor Pressure UlcersMichel M. Maharbiz
Physical Sensors & Devices75BPN765Full-Field Strain Sensor for Hernia Mesh RepairsMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS76BPN769Acousto-Optic Modulation of Brain Activity: Novel Techniques for Optogenetic Stimulation and ImagingMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS77BPN699A Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale ElectrophysiologyMichel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche
BioMEMS78BPN745Wafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube-Based Neural ProbesMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS79BPN716Neural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic BrainMachine InterfacesMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS80BPN718Direct Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular RobotsMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS81BPN795An Implantable Micro-Sensor for Cancer Surveillance New ProjectMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
Physical Sensors & Devices82BPN731Flexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural RecordingMichel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes
BioMEMS83BPN573Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Arrays for Chronic Stimulation and Recording in InsectsMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
BioMEMS84BPN571Implantable Microengineered Neural Interfaces for Studying and Controlling InsectsMichel M. Maharbiz
BioMEMS86BPN771Silicon Carbide ECoGs for Chronic Implants in Brain-Machine InterfacesMichel M. Maharbiz, Roya Maboudian
BioMEMS87BPN756MEMS Devices for Oral Delivery of Proteins and PeptidesDorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy
BioMEMS88BPN757Biosensors Based on Biologically Responsive PolymersDorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy
BioMEMS89BPN729Development of Microfluidic Devices with Embedded Microelectrodes using Electrodeposition and Hot EmbossingDorian Liepmann
Microfluidics90BPN711Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based SensorsDorian Liepmann
Microfluidics91BPN732The Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid DynamicsDorian Liepmann
Physical Sensors & Devices92BPN770Chemical Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (CS-FET)Ali Javey
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices93BPN704Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on MetalAli Javey
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices94BPN792Thin Film InP Photoelectrochemical Cells for Efficient, Low-Cost Solar Fuel Production New ProjectAli Javey
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices95BPN777Nonepitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline III-V Semiconductors onto Insulating Substrates New ProjectAli Javey
Physical Sensors & Devices96BPN747Electronic Skin: Fully Printed Electronic Sensor NetworksAli Javey
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices97BPN776Wearable Electronic TapeAli Javey
Physical Sensors & Devices98BPN746Liquid Heterojunction SensorsAli Javey
NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices99BPN694Monolayer Semiconductor DevicesAli Javey




Research Abstracts


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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN783 New Project
Project title Low Power Conductometric Soot Sensor With Fast Self-Regeneration
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Ameya Rao
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 06:44:06 PM
Abstract We are working on designing a conductometric soot sensor that measures the change in conductance resulting from soot deposition onto the sensor. Although some work has been done on conductometric soot sensing, current conductometric sensors are power intensive (5-30 W) and slow (60-170 s between sensing cycles) due to their large size, ineffective thermal insulation, and the high currents required for soot combustion (when self-regenerating). We propose to use microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication methods to develop a miniaturized conductometric soot sensor with a built-in polysilicon microheater for self-regeneration, whose small size and good thermal isolation make it a fast and energy-effective sensor. Preliminary results show that the sensor has 100-1000 times lower power consumption and 2-5 times faster self-regeneration than current sensors, consuming 20-40 mW per sensing cycle and self- regenerating in <30 s. Sensor performance in an internal combustion engine and catalyst integration to lower the regeneration temperature are currently being tested.
Contact Information ameyarao@berkeley.edu, maboudia@berkeley.edu, carraro@yahoo.com
Advisor Roya Maboudian

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN786 New Project
Project title NanoPlasmonics for Sensing and Energy
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Arthur O. Montazeri
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:07:52 AM
Abstract Controlling and concentrating infrared radiation has the potential to significantly impact infrared sensors, thermal imaging devices, as well as heat conversion systems. As most molecules have vibrational modes in the infrared range, they reradiate a great portion of the incident radiation instead of efficiently transmitting it. As a promising alternative, plasmonic gratings not only offer low-loss transmission of infrared radiation, but also compress the long infrared wavelengths. This localization effect greatly improves the sensing resolution and offers high-intensity fields at scales much smaller than the infrared wavelengths in free space. Such high intensities are invaluable probes for revealing light-matter interaction in nanoscale dimensions previously inaccessible. The challenge of creating low-loss materials in the infrared has been a nano-engineering feat utilizing functional gradients to guide and localize radiation. Recent advancements in nanofabrication, as well as a deeper understanding of light-matter interaction, have led to the realization of these plasmonic light-trapping gratings. We show the applicability of these structures as sensors for 1- detecting infrared signatures of molecules, 2- imaging, including bio-imaging, 3-concentrating thermal infrared radiation for energy harvesting. Our proposed structures utilize a gradient in the strength of plasmonic coupling between surfaces in close proximity to each other. Using this technique it is possible to fabricate such surfaces which possess a uniform depth and can be mass-produced using nano-imprint techniques.
Contact Information arthur.montazeri@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN790 New Project
Project title Low power microheater based sensing platform for breath analysis
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Hu Long, Anna Harley-Trochimczyk
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 05:22:09 PM
Abstract Breath analysis is attractive since it is noninvasive and can be repeated frequently for monitoring human physiological conditions. The ability to analyze human breath on mobile platforms would enable a noninvasive method of providing important health information to individuals. Here, we report the integration of semiconducting metal oxides on a microheater- based sensing platform to achieve fast, sensitive, selective, and stable breath analysis. We have developed a sensitive CO sensor by in situ growth of porous SnO2 films on a low power microheater. The sensor can detect 10 ppm CO with less than 0.2 sec response and recovery times at room temperature. Moreover, for the first time, we use MoS2 aerogel nanomaterial to detect NO2 at room temperature, and obtain a detection limit of 500 ppb, which is comparable to the results reported for single or few-layer MoS2 but follows much more scalable synthesis and device fabrication processes. Current work is focusing on improving sensing performance by low temperature heating and metal nanoparticle modification.
Contact Information longhu@berkeley.edu, anna.harleytr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro, Willi Mickelson

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN762
Project title Microheater-Based Platform for Low Power Combustible Gas Sensing
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project chemical sensing, combustible gas sensing, microheater, aerogel
Researchers Anna Harley-Trochimczyk, Jiyoung Chang
Time submitted Wednesday 28th of January 2015 06:51:01 PM
Abstract Accurate detection of flammable gases is essential for safe operation of many industrial processes. Installing networks of combustible gas monitors in industrial settings can allow for rapid leak detection and increased safety and environmental protection. However, existing combustible gas monitors are not suitable for use in wireless sensor networks due to the high power consumption. We have developed an ultra-low power combustible gas sensor with competitive sensitivity and lifetime characteristics that will enable ubiquitous wireless monitoring of combustible gases in industrial settings, resulting in enhanced safety. The core technology is a suspended microheater coated with a novel nanotechnology-based sensing material that catalyzes hydrocarbon combustion. Hydrogen gas sensing has been demonstrated with ~10 mW of power required to reach operation temperatures using platinum nanoparticles on a graphene aerogel support. Recently, propane sensing using the same material has been shown, but the graphene aerogel is not thermally stable at the required temperatures, so further research will look at other nanoparticle support options. Palladium nanoparticles are also under investigation for hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensing in order to enable arrays of sensing material for better selectivity.
Contact Information anna.harleytr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Willi Mickelson, Alex Zettl

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN424
Project title Silicon Carbide Nanomaterials for Harsh Environment Applications
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Silicon Carbide, LPCVD, Nanowires, RF MEMS, Harsh Environment, Supercapacitors
Researchers Lunet E. Luna
Time submitted Friday 30th of January 2015 09:41:52 AM
Abstract Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a material of interest to fabricate sensors and actuators able to operate in harsh environments. Particularly, its mechanical and electrical stability and its chemical inertness make SiC well suited for designing devices capable of operation in high temperature and corrosive environments. Harsh-environment stable metallization remains one of the key challenges with SiC technology. We are developing novel metallization schemes, utilizing solid-state graphitization, to improve the long-term reliability of Pt/Ti/poly-SiC contacts in high temperature environments. Our metallization scheme, which also includes an alumina protection layer, exhibits low contact resistivity after 500 hours at 450 °C in air. In addition, we are investigating the growth mechanism of SiC nanowires to understand how growth parameters may be manipulated to achieve specific SiC nanowire properties. The ability to control SiC nanowire polytype, growth orientation, and shape is essential for obtaining specific optical and electronic nanowire characteristics. SiC nanowires with tailored properties are attractive candidates for applications requiring high surface area coupled with extreme physicochemical stability, such as high- temperature energy storage, field emission cathodes, gas sensing in harsh environment, and electrowetting applications.
Contact Information lunet@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN767
Project title MEMS-Based Tunable Channel-Selecting Super-Regenerative RF Transceivers
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS, Oscillators, Radio, Transceiver
Researchers Tristan Rocheleau, Thura Lin Naing
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 09:35:50 AM
Abstract This project aims to achieve low-power micromechanical-based tunable RF channel- selecting transceivers.
Contact Information tristan@eecs.berkeley.edu, thura@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN359
Project title Micromechanical Disk Resonator-Based Oscillators
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS, Oscillators
Researchers Thura Lin Naing, Tristan Rocheleau
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 09:35:31 AM
Abstract This project aims to build and test micromechanical-based frequency synthesizer components that meet or exceed the requirements of the GSM standard. Towards these goals, the project investigates short and long-term stability of MEMS-based oscillators, particularly, phase noise and acceleration sensitivity. In addition to providing a highly accurate, on-chip frequency reference, a fully-integrated oscillator can achieve greater stability (particularly acceleration sensitivity) and far less power consumption than any comparable off-chip oscillator. In the process of achieving a fully-integrated frequency synthesizer, much of the research is expected to focus on development of integrated resonators-ASIC oscillators, as well as other needed components such as MEMS-based frequency dividers.
Contact Information thura@eecs.berkeley.edu, tristan@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen, Elad Alon

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN540
Project title Temperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and Filters
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project µmechanical resonator, electrical stiffness, compensation, frequency drift
Researchers Alper Ozgurluk
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 11:34:20 AM
Abstract This project aims to suppress temperature-induced frequency shift in high frequency micromechanical resonators targeted for channel-select filter and oscillator applications. A novel electrical stiffness design technique is utilized to compensate for thermal drift, in which a temperature-dependent electrical stiffness counteracts the resonator’s intrinsic dependence on temperature caused mainly by Young’s modulus temperature dependence.
Contact Information ozgurluk@eecs.berkeley.edu, ctnguyen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Package, Process & Microassembly
ProjectIDBPN734
Project title Package-Derived Influences on Micromechanical Resonator Stability
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project vacuum, encapsulation, hermetic, package, stress, finite element analysis
Researchers Divya N. Kashyap
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 07:57:15 PM
Abstract Vacuum encapsulation of RF disk and beam resonators is necessary in order to maintain high Q and frequency stability. However, the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the package material and the substrate lead to package induced stress. This project aims to explore the effects of this stress on the frequency response of the resonators using finite element analysis (FEA) software. Simulations performed on resonators packaged using conventional hermetic encapsulation techniques such as anodic and fusion bonding will be compared to that of an in situ packaging method where the resonators are housed in a polysilicon shell.
Contact Information dnk003@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN534
Project title Fully-Integrated Micromechanical Clock Oscillator
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project Oscillator, 32kHz, RTC, Real Time Clock, Fully Integrated MEMS
Researchers Henry G. Barrow
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 04:19:50 PM
Abstract This project aims to develop a fully integrated micromechanical clock oscillator which outperforms current quartz-based clock oscillators in terms of both size and cost. A 32-kHz micromechanical resonator with a temperature coefficient better than 10 ppm over the commercial temperature range will act as the oscillator's reference. In addition, this oscillator will utilize an integrated fabrication process above modern transistor circuits in order to minimize device footprint and production expense.
Contact Information hbarrow@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN707
Project title Automated Passband Tuning of High-Order Microelectromechanical Filters
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS, micromechanical, filter, high-order, bandpass, rolloff, stopband, rejection
Researchers Henry G. Barrow
Time submitted Monday 23rd of February 2015 11:55:45 AM
Abstract This project aims to develop multi-resonator micromechanical electronic filters for use in communication systems requiring bandpass filters with sharp rolloffs and large stopband rejections. A complete analysis of the design, fabrication and testing of filters comprised of 2-8 micromechanical resonators coupled by flexural mode springs will establish a greater understanding this exciting MEMS device. In addition, the implementation of an automated tuning scheme will provide complete corrective control over the filter’s passband by negating the effects of fabrication error.
Contact Information hbarrow@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN433
Project title A Micromechanical Power Converter
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project Power Converter, MEMS Switch
Researchers Ruonan Liu
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:28:12 AM
Abstract The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate a switched-mode power converter (e.g., a charge pump) using micromechanical switching elements that allow substantially higher voltages and potentially higher conversion efficiencies than transistor-switch based counterparts.
Contact Information liur@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN435
Project title A Micromechanical Power Amplifier
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS switch, switching mode power amplifier, MEMS resonator
Researchers Wei-Chang Li
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 11:37:46 PM
Abstract This overall project aims to demonstrate methods for amplifying signals with higher efficiency compared to transistor circuitry using strictly mechanical means for ultra-low-power signal processing applications.
Contact Information wcli@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN682
Project title Strong I/O Coupled High-Q Micromechanical Filters
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Robert A. Schneider
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 03:08:43 PM
Abstract This project improves the Q-factors of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) resonators by detaching their electrodes and suspending them at close distance. These devices are then used to make high-Q filters. "Capacitive-piezo" transduction, as it is called, allows for simultaneous low motional impedance (10-1000 Ohm) and high-Q (Q>8,800) performance for AlN resonators at VHF and UHF frequencies. The main advantage of these devices over capacitive resonators is their much stronger electromechanical coupling, e.g., Cx/C0>1.0%, enabling kt^2*Q figures of merit exceeding those of other technology classes in the range of 100MHz-1GHz. This project aims to use these high-performance resonators to demonstrate self-switchable, low impedance channel-selecting filters. Such filters can operate with insertion losses of less than 2-dB, stop- band rejection exceeding 50-dB, and power handling capability for high out-of-band and in-band power.
Contact Information bschneid@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN676
Project title Q-Boosted Optomechanical Oscillators
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Turker Beyazoglu, Alejandro Grine, Tristan Rocheleau
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 09:31:46 AM
Abstract This project aims to demonstrate Radiation Pressure driven Optomechanical Oscillators (RP-OMOs) with low phase noise and low power operation suitable for various applications in optical and RF communications. In particular, chip scale atomic clocks with low power consumption can be realized by replacing its power-hungry quartz-based microwave synthesizer with the proposed RP-OMO structure. The Q-boosted RP-OMO design approach of this work makes it possible to optimize both optical and mechanical design to simultaneously reduce the phase noise and threshold power of these oscillators while providing electromechanical coupling for electrical output and voltage controlled frequency tuning, as needed for the intended CSAC application.
Contact Information turker@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen, Ming C. Wu

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN701
Project title Bridged Micromechanical Filters
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project Micromechanical Filters, High-order Filters,
Researchers Jalal Naghsh Nilchi
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 01:11:32 PM
Abstract The overall project aims to explore the use of bridging between non-adjacent resonators to generate loss poles in the filter response toward better filter shape factor, sharper passband-to- stopband roll-off and better stopband rejection.
Contact Information jalal.naghsh.nilchi@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN709
Project title Tunable & Switchable Micromechanical RF Filters
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project micromechanical resonators, RF filters, channel selection
Researchers Lingqi Wu
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:47:00 AM
Abstract This project aims to explore the use of on-chip capacitively transduced micromechanical resonators to realize RF filters with substantial size and performance advantages. With their extremely high quality factor in UHF range and strong coupling coefficient enabled by nanometer electrode-to-resonator gap spacings, capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators should be able to realize reconfigurable RF channel select filters for future cognitive radio applications.
Contact Information wulingqi@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN683
Project title OpenWSN: A Standards-Based Low-Power Wireless Development Environment
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Wireless Sensor Networks, Protocol Stack, Ultra Low Power, Embedded systems, 802.15.4e, 6TiSCH, RPL, 6LoWPAN, CoAP
Researchers Nicola Accettura
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:58:52 PM
Abstract The OpenWSN project is an open-source implementation of a fully standards-based protocol stack for capillary networks, rooted in the new IEEE802.15.4e Time Synchronized Channel Hopping standard. The novel IETF 6TiSCH protocols make IEEE802.15.4e TSCH perfectly interfaced with well-known Internet-of-Things IETF standards, such as 6LoWPAN, RPL and CoAP, thus enabling ultra-low power and highly reliable mesh networks which are fully integrated into the Internet. The resulting protocol stack will be cornerstone to the upcoming Machine-to-Machine revolution. OpenWSN is ported to numerous commercial available platforms from older 16-bit micro-controller to state-of-the-art 32-bit Cortex-M architectures. The tools developed around the low- power mesh networks include visualization and debugging software, a simulator to mimic OpenWSN networks on a PC, and the environment needed to connect those networks to the Internet. OpenWSN projects leads standardization efforts for ultra low power M2M networks while contributing with innovative protocols for scalable, distributed and energy efficient communications.
Contact Information nicola.accettura@eecs.berkeley.edu, pister@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN789 New Project
Project title Reconfigurable, Wearable Sensors to Enable Long-Duration Circadian Biomedical Studies
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project Biomedical monitoring, wearable sensors, biological rhythms, translational health metrics
Researchers David C. Burnett
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 04:59:18 PM
Abstract The last 10 years have seen the emergence of wearable personal health tracking devices as a mainstream industry; however, they remain limited by battery lifetime, specific sensor selection, and a market motivated by a focus on short- term fitness metrics (e.g., steps/day). This hampers the development of a potentially much broader application area based on optimization around biomedical theory for long-term diagnostic discovery. As new biometric sensors come online, the ideal platform enabling the gathering of long-term diagnostic data would have the built-in extensibility to allow testing of different sensor combinations in different research settings to discover what kinds of data can be most useful for specific biomedical applications. Here we present the first generation of a reconfigurable wrist-mounted sensor device measuring 7x4x2cm and weighing 51g with battery (29g without). In its current configuration, it has recorded skin temperature, acceleration, and light exposure; these three variables allow prediction of internal circadian rhythms, as an example of the application of biological theory to enhance pattern detection. This generation is capable of operating long-term with minimal day-to-day disruption via easily exchangeable batteries, and has enough space for several months of data sampling to gather long-term diagnostic metrics. Future developments will include the addition of energy scavenging and a wireless mesh network for ambient data collection, the combination of which will allow uninterrupted data to be gathered without depending on the user.
Contact Information db@eecs,berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN744
Project title Self-Destructing Silicon
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Joseph Greenspun, Osama Khan, Travis Massey, Brad Wheeler
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 03:33:05 PM
Abstract Funded under the DARPA Vanishing Programmable Resources (VaPR) program, this project explores the fundamental issues associated with making wireless sensor nodes disappear after they have achieved their goal. Near-term goals include electro-chemical dissolution of circuit wiring, and in-package XeF2 etch of the silicon substrate. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate a single-chip wireless mote capable of self-destruction on receipt of specific RF command or environmental change.
Contact Information ksjp@berkeley.edu, brad.wheeler@berkeley.edu, greenspun@eecs.berkeley.edu, oukhan@berkeley.edu, maha
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Michel M. Maharbiz

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN735
Project title Autonomous Microrobotic Systems
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Microrobotics, electrostatics, actuators, MEMS, autonomous sensors
Researchers Daniel Contreras, Daniel Drew, Brad Wheeler, David Burnett, Joseph Greenspun, Michael Lorek
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:36:39 AM
Abstract Recent advances in MEMS technology have enabled a new generation of microrobotic engineering applications. This project aims at developing micro-scale actuation and transduction mechanisms for mobility. Currently, electrostatic inchworm motors in conjunction with microfabricated leg linkages are being investigated for walking while atmospheric ion thrusters are investigated for flying. A motivation behind this research is the development of truly mobile, high resolution, and autonomous sensor networks. One of the key elements towards autonomy is the fusion of these mobility mechanisms with energy harvesting capabilities, including high-voltage solar arrays. In addition, ultra-low power control and communications platforms must be designed with the constraints of a microrobotic system in mind.
Contact Information dscontreras@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S. J. Pister

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN768
Project title Plug-Through Energy Monitor for Wall Outlet Electrical Devices
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project energy monitor, wireless, 802.15.4, plug load
Researchers Michael C. Lorek, Fabien Chraim
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 04:44:36 PM
Abstract This project focuses on the development of a Plug-Through Energy Monitor (PTEM) for electrical devices connected to wall outlets. Using a non-intrusive inductive current sensing technique, the load current can be measured without requiring a series sensing element that breaks the circuit. This enables slim profile sensing hardware, and eliminates the power dissipated across series elements as in traditional current measurement techniques. This work aims to design a PCB-based solution that measures load current & line voltage, accurately calculates real power dissipated by a plug load, and reports its information using 802.15.4 wireless technology. Careful system-level optimization is required to minimize component costs, mitigate unwanted 60 Hz noise coupling, and maintain a small PCB footprint. We hope a low-cost device such as this will enable the widespread adoption of electrical energy metering in building wall outlets.
Contact Information mlorek@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN705
Project title Standard CMOS-Based, Fully Integrated, Stick-On Electricity Meters for Building Sub-Metering
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Michael C. Lorek
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 04:45:49 PM
Abstract We propose the development and testing of a system of technologies to minimize the installed cost of electricity sub-metering in buildings. This system utilizes non-contact, self-calibrating voltage and current sensors and wireless communication to eliminate the need for installation by an electrician, installation of conduit and enclosures, and installation of wired communication infrastructure. Electricity sub-metering is a critical component for continuous commissioning, fault detection and diagnosis, demand response, and other energy efficiency opportunities.
Contact Information mlorek@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Steven Lanzisera

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN608
Project title FM Gyroscope
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project gyroscope, calibration
Researchers Yu-Ching Yeh, Burak Eminoglu
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 11:08:01 AM
Abstract MEMS gyroscopes for consumer devices, such as smartphones and tablets, suffer from high power consumption and drift which precludes their use in inertial navigation applications. Conventional MEMS gyroscopes detect Coriolis force through measurement of very small displacements on a sense axis, which requires low-noise, and consequently high-power, electronics. The sensitivity of the gyroscope is improved through mode-matching, but this introduces many other problems, such as low bandwidth and unreliable scale factor. Additionally, the conventional Coriolis force detection method is very sensitive to asymmetries in the mechanical transducer because the rate signal is derived from only the sense axis. Parasitic coupling between the drive and sense axis introduces unwanted bias errors which could be rejected by a perfectly symmetric readout scheme. This project develops frequency modulated (FM) gyroscopes that overcome the above limitations. FM gyroscopes also promise to improve the power dissipation and drift of MEMS gyroscopes. We present results from a prototype FM gyroscope with integrated CMOS readout electronics demonstrating the principle.
Contact Information ycyeh@eecs.berkeley.edu, eminoglu@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN649
Project title Magnetic Particle Flow Cytometer
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project magnetic flow cytometry
Researchers Pramod Murali
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:10:28 PM
Abstract The complex susceptibility of magnetic materials show a frequency dependent behavior. The goal of the work over the last six months has been to measure the susceptibility for diff erent magnetic materials.
A coplanar waveguide is designed on a Duroid substrate. The waveguide is connected to a spiral inductor of nominal value 4.5 nH. These devices are wire bonded to the CPW and measurements are carried out using a network analyzer. The susceptibility is extracted from the measured S-parameters.
Measurement results show a clear difference between the susceptibility curves of ferrites of cobalt, manganese and nickel. These measurements corroborate the design of a CMOS chip for detection of magnetically labelled cells enabling a point of care cytometer.
Contact Information pramodm@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN685
Project title Real-Time Intraoperative Fluorescent Imager for Microscopic Residual Tumor in Breast Cancer
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NIH
Keywords of the Project cancer, imaging, radiation, surgery, breast cancer, oncology
Researchers Efthymios P. Papageorgiou
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:23:44 AM
Abstract Successful treatment of early stage cancer depends on the ability to resect both gross and microscopic disease. Microscopic residual disease (MRD) can lead to increased risk for local recurrence (LR) and reduced overall survival. Currently no methods exist to intraoperatively assess whether individual cancer cells remain in the tumor bed; only post-operative pathologic evaluation of the tumor for molecular tumor markers, requiring several days in a laboratory setting, can definitely identify MRD. Over 50,000 women each year who are diagnosed with breast cancer are found to have MRD after lumpectomy. Elimination of MRD in breast cancer is known to reduce the need for second surgical procedures, halve the LR rate from 30% to 15%, and increase breast cancer survival. A method of imaging MRD intraoperatively to guide complete resection is therefore essential. This project seeks to develop one method for intraoperatively identifying MRD.
Contact Information epp@berkeley.edu, anwarme@radonc.ucsf.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser, Mekhail Anwar

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN722
Project title Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor on a Chip
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Fingerprints, fat, body-index, ultrasonic, MEMS, integrated circuits
Researchers Hao-Yen Tang, Yipeng Lu
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 05:44:18 PM
Abstract The proliferation of electronic devices such as smartphones creates a pressing need for reliable biometric authentication. Present solutions such as capacitive fingerprint sensors have failed to gain wide acceptance due to their susceptibility to contamination from oils, perspiration, and dirt. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensors solve these problems but currently available devices are too large and costly for deployment in consumer devices. This motivates us to design a small-volume and fully-integrated ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a monolithic CMOS-MEMS process to overcome the disadvantage of current commercial ultrasonic fingerprint sensors. The prototype consist of a 24x8 array within 2mm x 0.8mm area is able to image real fingerprint, and a 5mm x 4mm second version is under fabrication.
Contact Information b96901108@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN665
Project title Frequency Modulated Laser Source for 3D Imaging
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project Photonics, LADAR, LIDAR, MEMS Tuning, EOPLL, Optoelectronics, Ranging
Researchers Behnam Behroozpour, Phillip Sandborn
Time submitted Monday 23rd of February 2015 10:47:56 AM
Abstract In recent years we have seen a growing demand for 3D cameras for applications such as gaming, entertainment, and autonomous vehicles. Present solutions suffer from high power dissipation and large size. This project leverages heterogeneous integration of standard CMOS electronics with high performance optical components including lasers, photo-diodes, interferometers and waveguides to reduce size, cost, and power dissipation.
Contact Information behroozpour@berkeley.edu, sandborn@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Eli Yablonovitch, Connie J. Chang-Hasnain

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN764
Project title Untethered Stress-Engineered MEMS MicroFlyers
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project State
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Spencer Ward, Ameen Hussain, Vahid Foroutan, Ratul Majumdar
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 10:03:03 PM
Abstract In this project, we are developing and testing microscale flying structures, called Microflyers. The microflyers consist of a 300 µm × 300 µm sized chassis fabricated from polycrystalline silicon using surface micromachining. At present, the flyers are levitated using microfabricated heaters attached to an underlying substrate. A novel, in-situ masked post-release stress-engineering process is used to generate a concave upwards curvature of the flyers chassis, causing static pitch and roll stability during flight, take-off, and landing. The initial experiments have demonstrated stable levitation. The microflyers represent an attractive airborne reconnaissance platform due to their microscale size, and thus stealth operation.
Contact Information SpencerWard@cal.berkeley.edu, shussa50@uic.edu , vforou2@uic.edu, rmajum2@uic.edu
Advisor Igor Paprotny

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN392
Project title Mobile Airborne Particulate Matter Monitor for Cellular Deployment
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project MEMS, Wireless, Particulates, Sensor, Mobile
Researchers Dorsa Fahimi, Omid Mahdavipour, Seiran Khaledian
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 10:06:07 PM
Abstract This project involves optimization of a portable MEMS-based instrument that quantifies and differentiates fine airborne particulate matter concentrations of such substances as diesel engine exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke, and wood smoke. The goal of the project is integration with and interfacing of the instrument to a cellular telephone for mobile monitoring.
Contact Information seiran.kh@gmail.com, dfahim2@uic.edu, omahda2@uic.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, paprotny@uic.edu, l
Advisor Richard M. White, Lara Gundel, Igor Paprotny

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN738
Project title Sensor Instrumentation to Improve Safety of U.S. Underground Coal Mines
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project coal mine, wireless sensor network, sensing inertness, data rate, power supply
Researchers Pit Pillatsch, Omid Mahdavipour
Time submitted Wednesday 21st of January 2015 02:56:26 PM
Abstract Coal mining is recognized as a dangerous undertaking. Explosions of coal dust and gases that may exist underground (such as methane) are well-known hazards, in addition to which are unexpected structural collapses. In order to prevent the propagation of coal dust explosions, regulations require that inert rock dust is applied in underground areas of a coal mine. This project is aimed at creating real-time sensors to determine the explosibility of a coal and rock dust mixture and to communicate the results from inside the mine to safety personnel above ground.
Contact Information paprotny@uic.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, pwright@me.berkeley.edu, ppillatsch@berkeley.edu, omahda
Advisor Richard M. White, Igor Paprotny, Paul K. Wright, Lara Gundel

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN697
Project title Natural Gas Pipeline Research
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project State
Keywords of the Project Gas, pipeline, sensor, pressure, flow, vibration, methane, wireless, ultrasonic, laser, weld, crack
Researchers Son Duy Nguyen, Pit Pillatsch
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:20:03 AM
Abstract The goal is to develop technologies for natural gas pipelines that provide increased system awareness and reliability, lower system costs, better assessment of pipeline integrity, and provide tangible benefits for utility customers. The benefits sought are natural gas pipelines that are more reliable, efficient, and secure. The BSAC research can be divided into three areas: 1. Microfabricated MEMS natural gas sensors 2. Low-power wireless sensor communication infrastructure 3. Ultrasonic diagnostic and test devices for natural gas pipelines.
Contact Information nguyen.duyson@berkeley.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, paprotny@uic.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright, Igor Paprotny

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDRMW29
Project title Electric Power Sensing for Demand Response
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project State
Keywords of the Project demand response, magnetic field, voltage sensor, current sensor, piezoelectric, smart dust
Researchers Christopher Sherman
Time submitted Thursday 05th of February 2015 02:29:23 PM
Abstract The overarching goal of this UCB project is to identify and develop technology to enable more-effective use of electric power. This phase has primarily focused on the development of small, inexpensive, low-power proximity-based sensors for voltage and current monitoring for better granularity of monitoring at multiple levels of the power grid (distribution, customer, and individual appliances). The term 'demand response' (DR) refers to the ability of electricity users to respond automatically to time- and location-dependent electric energy price and supply contingency information in order to tailor their electric energy usage.
Contact Information ctsherman@berkeley.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN787 New Project
Project title 3D-Printed Molds for Rapid Assembly of PDMS-based Microfluidic Devices
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project 3D Printing, Microfluidics, PDMS
Researchers Casey C. Glick, Joseph Lin, William Zhuang, Mitchell T. Srimongkal, Aaron Schwartz, Panitan Satamalee, Dennis Tekell, Judy Kim, Caroline Su
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 11:00:30 AM
Abstract In this work, we demonstrate the use of 3D-printed molds for fabricating PDMS-based microfluidic devices. 3D Printing allows for the fabrication of molds that are not monolithic in structure, and therefore represents a significant improvement over the capabilities of standard soft lithography; with 3D-printed molds, we can fabricate most features commonly generated by soft lithography in addition to formerly difficult features such as domes and variable-sized channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this technique can be used to generate microfluidic devices molded on both sides - which allows for single-step generation of features like vias and thin membranes - and can be easily adapted to generate multi-layer microfluidic structures.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN774
Project title 3D Printed Integrated Microfluidic Circuitry
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Lab-on-a-Chip, 3D Printing, Microfluidics,
Researchers Eric Sweet, Sunita Venkatesh, Kjell F. Ekman, Ashley Tsai, Kevin Korner
Time submitted Thursday 05th of February 2015 09:46:32 AM
Abstract In President Barack Obama’s 2013 State of the Union Address, he remarked that 3D printing-based manufacturing could change “the way we make almost everything.” Similar to the way in which the shift from vacuum tube-based technologies to solid-state components transformed the field of electronics, the shift from standard “top-down” fabrication methods (e.g., soft lithography) to emerging “bottom-up” micro/nanoscale 3D printing processes could revolutionize both chemical and biological fields.
Contact Information ericsweet2@gmail.com, sunitav@berkeley.edu, kfekman@berkeley.edu, ashleytsai@berkeley.edu, kevin_kor
Advisor Liwei Lin, Luke P. Lee, Ryan D. Sochol

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN775
Project title Integrated Microfluidic Circuitry via Optofluidic Lithography
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Lab-on-a-Chip, Microfluidics, Optofluidic Lithography,
Researchers Pranjali Beri, Anish Khare, Kevin Korner
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 04:23:45 PM
Abstract Mechanical engineering methods and microfabrication techniques offer powerful means for solving biological challenges. In particular, microfabrication processes enable researchers to develop technologies at scales that are biologically relevant and advantageous for executing biochemical reactions. Here, optofluidic lithography-based methodologies are employed to develop autonomous single-layer microfluidic components, circuits, and systems for chemical and biological applications.
Contact Information pranjalib@berkeley.edu, anishkhare@gmail.com, kevin_korner@berkeley.edu, rsochol@mit.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin, Luke P. Lee, Ryan D. Sochol

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN706
Project title Single-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic Lithography
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project microfluidic, gain, valve
Researchers Casey C. Glick, Christopher Deeble, Ki Tae Wolf, Vishnu Jayaprakash
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:58:38 AM
Abstract This project aims to create single-layer microfluidic gain valves for use in microfluidic devices. Autonomous microfluidic devices are essential for the long-term development of versatile biological and chemical platforms; however, the challenges of creating effective control mechanisms – e.g., the need for variable pressure sources, signal degradation in cascaded devices, and multi-stage manufacture methods – have proven considerable. Using in situ optofluidic lithography, we develop a single-layer pressure-based valve system with a static gain greater than unity. We will demonstrate the device in several microfluidic circuits, including logic gates and amplifiers. These pressure gain-based systems will enable microfluidic devices with a wide range of applications, such as flow rectifiers, oscillators, and high-precision pressure measurements. Due to ease of manufacture and design flexibility, this valve design could have widespread Lab-on- a-Chip applications by enabling self-regulation of microfluidic devices.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu, lwlin@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Micropower
ProjectIDBPN782 New Project
Project title Direct-write nanofibers for flexible energy storage
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Army/ARL
Keywords of the Project Direct-write nanofibers, flexible electronics, energy storage, supercapacitor
Researchers Caiwei Shen
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 05:08:19 PM
Abstract Solid-state flexible micro supercapacitors based on porous and conducting polymer nanofibers via the direct-write, near-field electrospinning process have been constructed. Testing results have shown a capacitance of 0.3mF/cm2, 30X larger as compared with those of flat electrodes. Key innovations of this work include: (1) densely-packed, porous 3D nanostructures with conductive nanofibers via the near-field electrospinning process; (2) flexible solid-state micro electrodes with high energy density using the pseudocapacitive effect; and (3) simple yet versatile manufacturing process compatible with various substrates and surfaces. As such, this technology is readily available to make practical MEMS energy storage devices.
Contact Information shencw10@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN784 New Project
Project title Aluminum Gallium Nitride 2DEG Sensors and Devices
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project GaN, AlGaN, 2DEG, sensor, MEMS
Researchers Kaiyuan Yao
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 01:26:10 AM
Abstract Two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and hole gas (2DHG) can be induced at the interface of epitaxial AlGaN/GaN due to spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Such electronic system features high transport mobility, carrier density and piezoelectric sensitivity. Mechanical strain and vibrations of devices can be transduced to electronic signals in embeded 2DEG for further processing. In this project, we study physical properties of this strongly-coupled electromechanical system, and develop possible devices such as pressure sensor, MEMS resonator, ultrasonic transducer, etc.
Contact Information kyyao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN736
Project title Atomic Layer Deposition Ruthenium Oxide Supercapacitors
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project Atomic layer deposition, supercapacitor, energy storage
Researchers Roseanne H. Warren
Time submitted Sunday 01st of February 2015 09:01:44 AM
Abstract This work presents the first demonstration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) ruthenium oxide (RuO2) and its conformal coating onto vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests as supercapacitor electrodes. Specific accomplishments include: (1) successful demonstration of ALD RuO2 deposition, (2) uniform coating of RuO2 on a vertically aligned CNT forest, and (3) an ultra-high specific capacitance of 100 mF/cm2 from prototype electrodes with a scan rate of 100 mV/s. Advantages of the ALD method include precise control of the RuO2 layer thickness and composition without the use of CNT- binder molecules. In addition to high capacitance, preliminary results indicate that the ALD RuO2- CNTs have good stability over repeated cycling. Besides its use in supercapacitors, ALD-RuO2 has potential NEMS applications: in biosensors and pH sensing, as a strong oxidative material in multiple chemical processes, and in catalytic reactions for photocatalytic systems.
Contact Information warrenr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN672
Project title Solar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water Splitting
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project KAUST
Keywords of the Project Solar energy, photocatalysis, nano materials
Researchers Roseanne H. Warren, Emmeline Kao
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 02:42:15 PM
Abstract Hydrogen is a promising, environmentally-friendly fuel source for replacing fossil fuels in transportation and stationary power applications. Currently, most hydrogen is produced from non-renewable sources including natural gas, oil, and coal. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a new renewable energy technology that aims to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy. When light is absorbed by the photocatalyst, an electron-hole pair is generated that interacts with water molecules in a surface reduction-oxidation reaction to decompose the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The current challenge in PEC water splitting is finding low-cost, stable materials with good visible light absorption and high efficiency for water splitting. Silicon has demonstrated promising capabilities as photocatalysts due to its high visible light absorption, low cost, and high abundance. This project aims to improve the performance of silicon for water splitting by developing new high-surface area silicon photoelectrodes using chemical vapor deposition silicon.
Contact Information warrenr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Micropower
ProjectIDBPN737
Project title Graphene-Based Microliter-Scale Microbial Fuel Cells
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Vishnu Jayaprakash, Roseanne Warren, Casey Glick
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 11:31:25 PM
Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are energy harvesters that use the anaerobic respiration of microorganisms to generate electricity. With the increase in demand for micro-scale, low power output energy harvesters over the last five years, microliter-scale microbial fuel cells (µMFCs) have received a great deal of scientific interest. Previously, researchers have operated these fuel cells under controlled anodic conditions to attain high current densities and columbic efficiencies. However, relatively low power outputs, inadequate working potentials, complex fabrication processes and tedious operating techniques have limited µMFCs from implementation in practical applications. To improve such performance and enhance the practicality of these fuel cells, this project presents new fuel cell architectures, electrode materials, fabrication techniques and operating procedures.
Contact Information soorse@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Micropower
ProjectIDBPN742
Project title 3D Carbon-Based Materials for Electrochemical Applications
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Xining Zang
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:09:20 PM
Abstract Carbon-based materials such as CNT (1D) and graphene (2D) have been widely studied as electrode materials in various applications, including sensing, catalyst and energy storage. The extraordinary properties of these carbon-based materials provide possible advantages in reduced reaction potential, low surface fouling, and large surface area. This project aims to investigate possible combination of the 1D and 2D carbon-based materials in the form of 3D structures. The possible new structure could exhibit the following desirable characteristics: 1) conformal deposition with ordered 3D CNT/graphene structures; 2) high surface area with active surfaces; 3) feasibility of embedding other catalysts for electrochemical reactions. The long term goals are to optimize the 3D graphene/CNT materials both structurally and functionally for applications in electrochemical sensors, catalysts, and energy storage devices.
Contact Information xining.zang.me@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN743
Project title Highly Responsive pMUTs
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (pMUTs), curved pMUTS, spherical piezoelectric elastic shells, bimorph pMUTs, dual electrode bimorph pMUT
Researchers Sina Akhbari
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 07:10:02 PM
Abstract Ultrasonic imaging is one of the most important and widely used medical imaging techniques, which uses high-frequency sound waves to view soft tissues such as muscles, internal organs as well as blood flowing through blood vessels in real time. With the advancement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), ultrasonic devices operated based on plate flexural mode have shown remarkable improvements in bandwidth, cost, and yield over the conventional thickness- mode PZT sensors. MEMS fabrication technologies can be utilized to realize both capacitive (cMUTs) and piezoelectric (pMUTs) micromachined ultrasonic transducers However, these devices could enjoy much more widespread applications if they were adjustable, better focused with lower energy requirements. This project aims to highly responsive pMUTs based on CMOS compatible fabrication processes with the potential to replace the plate-based pMUTs for high electromechanical coupling ultrasonic transducer arrays for applications in fingerprint IDs, body movement sensors, and hand- held medical imagers
Contact Information sina.akhbari68@gmail.com
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
ProjectIDBPN574
Project title On-Chip Micro-Inductor
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project Inductor, On-Chip, RF
Researchers Kisik Koh, Chen Yang
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:16:55 AM
Abstract On-chip inductors are key passive elements to high-power and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs). This project aims to realize super-compact on-chip micro-inductor with magnetic media for high-power and RF IC's, including: 1) to explore low-loss, high resonance frequency magnetic material for inductor application; 2) to develop magnetic-material integration process; 3) to realize the super-compact magnetic-embedded inductor. The long-term objectives for this project are to resolve the current problem of lacking compact-size high-performance on-chip inductors, and then reduces the whole circuit cost significantly and helps the practical realization of RF systems-on-a- chip (SoCs) for real-world applications.
Contact Information kskoh@berkeley.edu, chenyang@berkeley.edu, lwlin@me.berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN772
Project title Graphene for Flexible and Tunable Room Temperature Gas Sensors
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Chemical Sensor, Gas Sensor, Graphene FET, Selectivity
Researchers Yumeng Liu
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:33:19 AM
Abstract As air pollution from industrial and automobile emission becomes more and more severe, the personalized, integrated gas sensor is desirable for everyone to monitor everyday's air quality as well as their personal health condition. Such sensor should have the desirable features like energy efficient,miniature size, accurate response (down to ppm level), flexibility and selectivity. Traditional 3D semiconductor based gas sensor works in the temperature range of 300 to 400 oC, which requires large amount of energy to power the heater. We here propose using graphene based flexible field effect transistor to detect and distinguish gas in both concentration and category concurrently by measuring its electrical properties at room temperature.
Contact Information yumengliu@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN778 New Project
Project title Single-cell MicroRNA Quantification for Gene Regulation Heterogeneity Study
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Foundation
Keywords of the Project Single-cell, microRNA, microfluidics, amplification method
Researchers Qiong Pan, Xianjin Xiao, Soongweon Hong
Time submitted Tuesday 20th of January 2015 03:03:29 PM
Abstract MicroRNAs can affect individual cells’ epigenetic modifications in a variety of biological processes such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and maintenance of stemness. These modifications can be largely heterogeneous depending on the internal and external factors. However, traditional tube-based qPCR or microarray system is lack of sensitivity and requires intensive labor and time input. Current integrated single-cell miRNA detection platforms are lack of the capacity of handling thousands of cells at the same time for statistical meaningful data acquisition. Here, we established a high throughput single-cell miRNA quantification method based on microfluidic flow cell technology and novel n2 amplification in replacement of PCR. The advantages of this method are: • Single-cell addressability: Reliable single-cell trapping and miRNA capturing within isolated microchambers ensures clearly readable signals from single cells. • Higher throughput: process more than 5000 single cells’ target miRNA level in one operation. • More precise and faster quantification than PCR: Instead of real-time PCR, we developed an n2 isothermal amplification method that enables precise quantification of miRNA using snapshots of single-time-point signals within 35mins. • Fast and easy cell-to-signal results: By using a picoliter-reactor array in flow cell format, whole process of sample preparation is easily completed by capillary flow within 15 mins. The cell-to-signal process takes less than 1 hour. • Good flexibility: Time dependent perfusion and stimulation of captured single-cells is available on the spot of analysis; protein and miRNA correlation study is available within one set of experiment by combining with protein detection. This method is promising in the use of fast screening of miRNA candidates. We have quantified heterogeneous distribution of single- cell miRNAs in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its doxorubicin- resistant population. The results showed miRNA sub- populations and their changes upon drug treatment. Furthermore, we detected the correlation between miRNAs and the transcription factor NANOG in genetically modified mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The result indicated that several miRNAs may contributes to the heterogeneous distribution of NANOG among mESCs as downstream regulators of NANOG.
Contact Information qiongpan@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN794 New Project
Project title Bubble-free Microfluidic PCR
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Foundation
Keywords of the Project Bubble-free microfluidic PCR chip, polymerase chain reaction, rapid microfluidic PCR
Researchers Sanghun Lee
Time submitted Thursday 05th of February 2015 01:38:31 AM
Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important analytical methods in fundamental molecular biology, life science, medicine, environmental and agricultural monitoring due to its specificity and quantification capability. However, the major problems of microfluidic PCR on chip are the generation of bubbles, reagent evaporation, and the needs of external equipment. Here, we report the theoretical analysis, design, fabrication and characterization of bubble- free microfluidic digital PCR on chip for a rapid sample-to-answer molecular diagnostic platform. After the theoretical modeling of bubble formation and suppression, we accomplish the bubble-free microfluidic digital PCR on chip. Using an integrated polymeric microfabrication method, we achieve ultrafast PCR in less than 3 min. For the applications of bubble-free microfluidic digital PCR on chip in molecular diagnostics, we demonstrate the successful amplification of cMET gene, a NA biomarker for lung cancer. This approach will result in a new paradigm for ultrafast molecular diagnosis and can facilitate broad availability of NA-based diagnostics for point-of-care testing, personalized medicine, preventive medicine, and prevention of drug resistance.
Contact Information sanghun.lee@berkeley.edu; lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN727
Project title On-Chip Single Molecule miRNA Detection for Cancer Diagnosis
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project miRNA, Detection, Cancer
Researchers Julian A. Diaz, Sang Hun Lee
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 03:37:18 PM
Abstract Early stage cancer diagnosis may mean the difference between a successful or an ineffective treatment. Therefore, development of methods that allow the detection of premature signatures of cancer are necessary. Mature microRNAs are short non-coding RNAs strands (~18-21 nt) involved in gene regulation of eukaryotic cells. In cancer cells some miRNAs appear over or under expressed, and serve as a markers to signal the presence of these malignancies. MicroRNAs, however, are present in very low concentrations, thus sensitive and multiplexed methods that detect specific miRNAs are needed to enable the patient with timely and better treatment of this disease. Currently, we are developing a method that offers sensitive, fast, and multiplexed detection of miRNAs in blood samples. This method can be easily adapted to chip technology paving the way to recognize miRNAs without the need of either sample preparation or enzymatic/chemical modification. Due to the multiplexed and sensitive capabilities of our device, we also expect it to provide accurate cancer type characterization.
Contact Information jdiaz1@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN773
Project title Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Hepatocytes (hiPSC-HPs)-based Organs on Chip
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NIH
Keywords of the Project Microlfuidics, Organ-on-a-chip, Drug development, microsystems, Tissue engineering
Researchers Alireza Salmanzadeh
Time submitted Thursday 05th of February 2015 09:05:02 AM
Abstract Three major barriers inhibit current research in human drug screening: experimental in vivo interventions in people have unacceptable risks; in vitro models of human tissue are primitive; and, non-human animal models are not directly comparable to humans. However, currently there is no in vitro platform that recapitulates physiological microenvironments using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Here we demonstrated hiPSC-derived hepatocytes (hiPSC-HPs)-based organs on chip, consisting of three functional components: a cell culture pocket, an endothelium-like perfusion barrier, and a nutrient transport channel acting as a capillary. A high fluidic resistance-based microfluidic endothelium-like barrier physically separates the cell culture and nutrient transport compartments. Our design allows continuous perfusion, high-throughput formation of microtissue amenable to continuous monitoring and sampling by determining a set of device parameters and cell seeding options. Cell loading was optimized to achieve high cell density and viability (>95%) right after seeding into microdevices. We also found that a high cell concentration (~10 million cells/mL) was critical for high loading quality. We validated and tested the hiPSC-HPs- based liver-on-a-chip platform for long-term functionality of the liver tissue (4 weeks), by measuring hepatocytes Albumin secretion, in the absence of coculturing with non-parenchymal cells. Also hiPSC-HPs are co-cultured with fibroblasts, T3T-J2 cells, to enhance the longevity of hepatocytes to more than 4 weeks. It was confirmed that the model is suitable for drug toxicity screening and validates the liver tissue model’s response by investigating Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes activities, specifically CYP 3A4 and 1A2, the most active drug metabolizing CYPs, using Promega P450-Glo™ Assays. Our liver-on-a-chip platform addresses the need of having a suitable in vitro liver model recapitulating the physiological functions and drug responsiveness of the liver for drug development, and disease modeling applications.
Contact Information alirezas@berkeley.edu, lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke Lee

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN730
Project title Microfluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Foundation
Keywords of the Project Microfluidic, Blood plasma separation, Point-of-care
Researchers Jun Ho Son, Sang Hun Lee, ByungRae Cho
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 05:52:27 PM
Abstract Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have been widely developed for the rapid detection of infectious diseases such as HIV, TB and Malaria. Blood plasma separation is an initial step for most blood-based diagnostics. Although, centrifuge method is the classical bench- top technique, it is time and labor intensive, and therefore, automation and integration of blood plasma separation in the LOC device is ideal for POC diagnostics. Here, we propose a novel microfluidic blood plasma separation device for POC diagnostics. This investigation will hopefully lead to a simple and reliable blood plasma separation device that can be utilized by individuals with minimal training in resource-limited environments for POC diagnostics. This blood plasma separation device will be integrated with downstream detection module for single-step POC diagnostics.
Contact Information jhson78@berkeley.edu, sanghun.lee@berkeley.edu, brcho@berkeley.edu, lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN791 New Project
Project title Integrated Photobioreactor with Optical Excitation Membranes (iPOEMs) for Efficient Photosynthetic Light Harvesting
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Foundation
Keywords of the Project Photobioreactor, Nanoplasmonics, Selective wavelength scattering, Microalgae, Biofuel
Researchers Doyeon Bang
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 05:32:29 PM
Abstract Efficient photosynthetic light harvesting came into the spotlight due to the growing concerns on global energy crisis. However, non-uniform distribution of light in photobioreactor is one of major challenges for efficient photosynthetic light harvesting. We developed an integrated photobioreactor with optical excitation membranes (iPOEMs) by creating uniform optical antennas and scattering network in a flexible membrane. We demonstrated that iPOEMs are stable under temperature change (>80 ⁰C and <0 ⁰C) or illumination of intensive light (>50 mW/cm2). We developed iPOEMs with pillar structures for uniform light distribution and selective scattering of blue (c.a. 380-440 nm) and red light (c.a. 640-680 nm) to facilitate growth of microalgae and avoid the photoinhibiton of photosynthesis. We obtained the enhanced growth of microalgae in high population by using the iPOEMs with pillar structures. We believe our iPOEMs will shed new light on the accomplishment of efficient photosynthetic light harvesting.
Contact Information doyeonbang@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN679
Project title Portable Microfluidic Pumping System for Point-Of-Care Diagnostics
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project point-of-care, diagnostics, microfluidic, rapid test, isothermal, amplification, pumping, pump, degas, vacuum
Researchers Erh-Chia Yeh
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 04:59:37 AM
Abstract It is desirable for medical diagnostic assays to have portable and low cost pumping schemes. Although capillary loading is the most common example, it cannot load dead-end channels, often have fibres that obstruct optics, and have surface treatment or geometrical constraints. On the other hand, conventional degas pumping lacks flow control, speed, and reliability. Here we report a new portable pumping system that does not require any peripheral equipment or external power sources/controls. Compared with conventional degas pumping, it has ~8 times less standard deviation in speed, is operational for >2 hours, can tune and increase loading speed up to 10 times, and can maintain a slower exponential decay of flow rate (factor of 5 increase in time constant). As an example, we show it was possible to integrate this pumping system with one-step sample prep and digital amplification, and demonstrated quantitative detection of DNA in one-step (10~10^5 copies DNA/μl). We believe this integrated power-free pumping design may become a fundamental building block for future point-of-care diagnostic devices.
Contact Information erh-chia-yeh@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN703
Project title Directly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light Emission
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project nano-photonics, optical antenna, photonics, optical interconnect, nanotechnology, optoelectronics, plasmonics
Researchers Seth A. Fortuna, Michael Eggleston
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:50:21 AM
Abstract Coupling an optical antenna to a nanoscale light emitter has been shown to increase the spontaneous emission rate by compensating for the large size mismatch between the emitter and emission wavelength. This spontaneous emission rate enhancement has been predicted to be as large as several orders of magnitude, easily surpassing the stimulated emission rate and enabling high direct modulation bandwidths. The aim of this project is to utilize this concept to demonstrate a directly modulated nanoscale semiconductor light emitting diode (nanoLED) with modulation speeds in excess of 10s of GHz, exceeding the bandwidth of semiconductor lasers. Unlike lasers, such nanoLEDs are also inherently low-power and do not require minimum threshold current density for operation and are therefore a promising light generating source for use, for example, in intra-chip communication.
Contact Information fortuna@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN721
Project title MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) Component Fabrication, Design, and Characterization
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project optical phase-locked loop, silicon photonics, 3D integration, MEMS, CMOS, VCSEL, HCG, PIC, FMCW LADAR,
Researchers Phillip A.M. Sandborn, Behnam Behroozpour, Sangyoon Han
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:34:02 AM
Abstract Active III-V photonic components and passive Si photonic circuits are integrated with CMOS electronic circuits in this project. The modular MEMS-Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) platform will make use of the high performance of the individual components and integrate (1) MEMS tunable VCSEL with high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors, (2) photodetectors, (3) Si photonic waveguides, couplers, and interferometers, (4) high-efficiency vertical optical coupler between III-V and Si waveguides, and (5) CMOS circuits for frequency control and temperature compensation. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed MEPHI platform, a frequency- modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) source is being developed. Results have shown that electronic-photonic 3D integration of optoelectronic components can greatly improve the performance of FMCW LADAR sources. We also demonstrate that optoelectronic integration improves the bandwidth of optical phase-locked loops (OPLLs).
Contact Information sandborn@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN788 New Project
Project title Optical Phased Array for LIDAR
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Youmin Wang
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:16:04 PM
Abstract We have previously demonstrated the development of an Optical Phased Array (OPA) micromechanical system (MEMS) used for beam steering, which shows great advantages over previous mechanisms such as opto-mechanical, acoustooptical (AO) or electro-optical (EO). Supported by Texas Instruments (TI), we aim to integrate the OPA MEMS system into the application of automobile navigation, which is currently primarily dominated by opto-mechanical scanning based systems. Opto-mechanical scanning devices are usually bulky and relatively slow, while competing technologies (AO, EO) utilize devices that while small in size, cannot provide the steering speeds and versatility necessary for many applications. In drawing from phased array concepts that revolutionized RADAR technology by providing a compact, agile alternative to mechanically steered technology, the OPA based LIDAR program seeks to integrate thousands of closely packed optical emitting facets, precise relative electronic phase control of these facets, and all within a very small form factor. Comparing with other competing LIDAR system, the OPA based LIDAR system will have multiple degrees of freedom for phase control which enables not only agile beam steering but also beam forming and multiple beam generation, greatly expanding the diversity of applications.
Contact Information wu@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN751
Project title 50x50 Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch with Microsecond Response Time
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project optical switch, large scale, fast, small footprint
Researchers Sangyoon Han, Tae Joon Seok
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:29:30 PM
Abstract We developed a new architecture suitable for building a large-scale optical switch with fast response time. We have demonstrated switches with scale of 50x50, and speed of 2.5us using our new architecture. The switch architecture consists of optical crossbar network with MEMS actuated couplers and it is implemented on silicon photonics platform. Thanks to high integration density of silicon photonics platform, we could integrate 50x50 switch on area less than 1cm x 1cm. We belive that our switch architecture can be scaled up to the scale larger than 200x200 and beyond.
Contact Information sangyoon@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN609
Project title Ultra-Sensitive Photodetectors on Silicon Photonics
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project phototransistor, silicon photonics, metal-optics
Researchers Ryan Going, Tae Joon Seok
Time submitted Thursday 22nd of January 2015 05:48:43 PM
Abstract As CMOS devices shrink in physical size, electrical interconnects between the devices will consume an ever-greater proportion of total chip power. A promising solution is to use silicon photonics for intra- and inter-chip communications. To be cost effective, both the optical transmitter and receiver should be made small, highly efficient, and CMOS compatible. Shrinking the photodiode will increase sensitivity and energy efficiency, but as it gets very small, the capacitance of the wire to the first amplifying stage in the receiver becomes significant. We present a solution which integrates the photodiode and first stage transistor in the form of an integrated germanium phototransistor. The rapid melt growth technique is used to integrate high quality single crystal germanium onto a silicon waveguide integrated device in a CMOS process. Bipolar gain combined with extremely compact device dimensions produces high-speeed, high-sensitivity receivers which operate at 1550 nm on a silicon photonics platform.
Contact Information rwgoing@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
ProjectIDBPN458
Project title Optical Antenna-Based nanoLED
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Plasmonics, Laser, Light Emitting Diode, Nanophotonics, Nanocavity, Optical Interconnects, Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
Researchers Kevin Han, Michael Eggleston, Sujay Desai, Seth Fortuna
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:42:29 AM
Abstract Spontaneous emission has been considered slower and weaker than stimulated emission. As a result, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have only been used in applications with bandwidth < 1 GHz. Spontaneous emission is inefficient because the radiating dipole is much smaller than wavelength and such short dipoles are poor radiators. By attaching an optical antenna to the radiating dipole at the nanoscale, the emission rate can be significantly increased enabling high modulation bandwidths theoretically >100 GHz. This project focuses on the physical demonstration of this new type of nanophotonic device. Current fabrication and experimental results of devices using transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as an emitter material will be presented. Fundamental limits of rate enhancement will also be discussed.
Contact Information kyh@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Ali Javey

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN552
Project title Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting)
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Digital Microfluidics, Droplet Microfluidics, Electrowetting, Optoelectrowetting, EWOD, Optofluidics
Researchers Shao Ning Pei, Jodi Loo
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:18:50 PM
Abstract The ability to quickly perform large numbers of chemical and biological reactions in parallel using low reagent volumes is a field well addressed by droplet-based digital microfluidics. Compared to continuous flow-based techniques, digital microfluidics offers the added advantages such as individual sample addressing and reagent isolation. We are developing a Light- Actuated Digital Microfluidics device (also known as optoelectrowetting) that optically manipulates nano- to micro-liter scale aqueous droplets on the device surface. The device possesses many advantages including ease of fabrication (no lithography required) and the ability for real-time, reconfigurable, large-scale droplets control (simply by altering the low-intensity projected light pattern). We hope to develop Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics into a powerful platform for lab- on-a-chip (LOC) applications.
Contact Information shaoning@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN733
Project title Optoelectronic Tweezers for Long-Term Single Cell Culture
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project Optoelectronic tweezers, OET, single cell, single cell analysis
Researchers Shao Ning Pei, Tiffany Dai
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:19:08 PM
Abstract In contrast to bulk analysis, analyzing biological samples on a single-cell level is a powerful tool in deriving a more complete, quantitative understanding of cellular behavior. The optoelectronic tweezers (OET) platform utilizes light-generated dielectrophoretic force to manipulate micro-scale objects reconfigurably on the device surface. Consequently, OET is able to select for individual cells and manipulate them into a specific configuration where these cells are cultured and studied for an extended period of time. Compared to trap-based single-cell techniques, the OET platform provides advantages such as specific selection of an individual cell and subsequent culturing over a larger-scale area at a particular address on the surface of the device. We are looking to apply the OET platform for long- term culture of single cells and gain useful insights into topics such as rate of proliferation, differentiation, and changes in morphology and protein expression.
Contact Information shaoning@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Song Li

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Package, Process & Microassembly
ProjectIDBPN354
Project title The Nanoshift Concept: Innovation through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication of MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean Technologies
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project Nanoshift, nanolab, microlab, process, recharge, commercial
Researchers Ning Chen, Salah Uddin
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 02:16:02 PM
Abstract Nanoshift LLC is a privately held research and development company specializing in MEMS, Microfluidics and Nano technologies. Nanoshift provides high quality customizable services for device and process design, research and development, rapid prototyping, low volume fabrication and technology transfer into high volume. Typical projects come from academia, government and industry. Nanoshift is the solution for your device concept to commercialization needs. Nanoshift collaborates with BSAC to make industry-leading development resources available for all BSAC members while improving BSAC's visibility and funding.
Contact Information nchen@nanoshift.net, suddin@nanoshift.net
Advisor John M. Huggins

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Package, Process & Microassembly
ProjectIDBPN712
Project title Bridging Research-to-Commercialization Gaps In an Industry/ University Ecosystem
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Commercialization, Industry, Nanoshift, NSF, MIG, Nanolab, Intermediaries, Gas Sensor, Wireless, Wireless HART, ChemFET
Researchers John Huggins,Hossain M. Fahad,Hiroshi Shiraki,David Burnett,Nicola Accettura
Time submitted Sunday 08th of February 2015 05:51:14 PM
Abstract Some BSAC members have, in our surveys and at IAB meetings, vocalized that we need to help bridge commercialization gaps and increase the speed of commercialization. Traditional University research commercialization paths through passive licensing to start-ups, are often highly successful and will remain the dominant path. But such paths do not leverage the sophisticated manufacturing, marketing, and sales channels of our larger Industrial members who could rapidly exploit certain research discoveries. While any such commercialization facilitation programs cannot compromise the fundamental research mission of the Center, new proactive development models are sought. This project and the new model involves joint efforts of multiple Industrial members with specialized or focused non-University agents (intermediaries) who can facilitate the transition from laboratory proof of concept vehicles to precommercial prototypes to commercial production. The intermediaries provide boundary spanning between university research and commercialization, including active participation in formalized multi-industrial participant university-based research projects with specific transition plans to industrial partners.
Contact Information jhuggins@berkeley.edu
Advisor John M. Huggins,Ali Javey,Kristofer S.J.Pister

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN655
Project title Materials for High Quality-Factor Resonating Gyroscopes
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS gyroscopes, inertial sensors, surface micromachining, High Q materials, CVD diamond
Researchers Hadi Najar, Chen Yang
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:49:58 PM
Abstract This project will investigate new materials suitable for achieving Q-factors in excess of 1 million in resonating gyroscopes. Experimental studies of dissipation caused by thermoelastic and surface losses will be performed using resonator test structures. The effect of doping and microstructure is explored on CVD diamond MEMS resonators. Hundreds of surface micromachined cantilevers and double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonators were fabricated in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films deposited using hot filament CVD technique with varying levels of Boron doping, Deposition temperature and methane flow rate. Thermal conductivities of diamond films were measured using TDTR technique for further mapping of theory and experiment. The dissipation mechanisms were further explored over temperature range from 300-730 Kelvin.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, hnajar@ucdavis.edu, chenyang@berkeley.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN781 New Project
Project title 3-Axis MEMS Gyroscope
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Soner Sonmezoglu, Parsa Taheri-Tehrani
Time submitted Friday 23rd of January 2015 02:39:28 PM
Abstract The goal of the project is to design the resonator and electronics for a single structure 3-Axis MEMS vibratory rate gyroscope. The mechanical structure of the device will be designed to have the capability of 3-Axis sensing performance. Low-power CMOS electronics will be designed to meet the requirements for consumer electronics.
Contact Information ssonmezoglu@ucdavis.edu, ptaheri@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN603 New Project
Project title Micro Rate-Integrating Gyroscope
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project MEMS, Rate Integrating Gyroscope, Silicon Wet Etch, Diamond, Control
Researchers Chen Yang, Hadi Najar, Parsa Taheri-Tehrani
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 11:06:44 AM
Abstract The goal of this project is to realize a micro rate-integrating gyroscope that produces an output signal proportional to rotation angle rather than rotation rate. If successful, this device would eliminate the need of integrating the gyroscope's rate output to obtain the angle. Realizing a micro rate-integrating gyroscope can be achieved by fabricating hemispherical resonating shells with extremely close frequency matching (delta f < 10 Hz) and a very high quality factor (Q > 1 million). Structures must be highly axisymmetric and micro-finished to nanometer scale roughness. Gyroscope resonators have at least two resonant modes that can be coupled by Coriolis force. Difference in damping coefficients and stiffness of the resonant modes of the MEMS resonator known as anisodamping and anisoelasticity are main sources of error in RIG. Control algorithms should be developed to eliminate these errors.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, chenyang@berkeley.edu, hnajar@ucdavis.edu, ptaheri@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN684
Project title Integrated Microgyroscopes with Improved Scale-Factor and Bias Stability
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project gyroscope, inertial sensor, signal processing, CMOS
Researchers Jason Su, Sarah Nitzan
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:15:05 AM
Abstract Despite their small size, low power dissipation, and low cost, the large bias and scale factor errors of current MEMS inertial sensors preclude using them for dead reckoning navigation. Although these shortcomings can be overcome with precision manufacturing and extensive calibration, such solutions suffer from high cost and secondary effects such as long term drift. Presently, the use of in-situ calibration techniques in MEMS sensors is limited to the electronic interfaces, where they are instrumental for reducing drift arising from electronic components. This project extends the benefit of electronic background calibration to the MEMS transducer to continuously reduce scale factor and bias errors arising from manufacturing tolerances and drift.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, sarah.nitzan@gmail.com, thssu@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN599
Project title MEMS Electronic Compass: Three-Axis Magnetometer
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Vashwar T. Rouf, Soner Sonmezoglu
Time submitted Monday 23rd of February 2015 12:40:35 PM
Abstract The goal of this is project is to develop a low-power three axis MEMS magnetic sensor suitable for use as an electronic compass in smart phones and portable electronics. Our objective is to achieve a resolution of 200 nT/rt Hz and power consumption of 5 mW/axis with DC power supply of 3.3V. To enable co-integration with a 3-axis accelerometer, we seek to optimize sensor performance without the need for a vacuum seal. Although past devices designed by our group have demonstrated that our resolution goal is reachable, these devices suffered from dc offset larger than Earth's field and required an external programmable oscillator for operation. Here, we aim to reduce offset by two orders of magnitude and develop self-oscillation loops to excite the sensor at its natural frequency.
Contact Information vtrouf@ucdavis.edu,dahorsley@ucdavis.edu,ssonmezoglu@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN785 New Project
Project title Scandium-doped AlN for MEMS
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Qi Wang
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 02:36:44 PM
Abstract The goal of this project is to design, fabricate and characterize novel MEMS devices based on scandium-doped AlN thin films. Scandium-doped AlN thin film is a promising piezoelectric material due to its CMOS compatible process, low relative permittivity and high piezoelectric coefficient. It enables better performance for piezoelectric MEMS devices.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, qixwang@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN466
Project title Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project Aluminum Nitride, Piezoelectric, Ultrasound Transducers, MEMS
Researchers Ofer Rozen
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:22:25 AM
Abstract Characterize air-coupled aluminum nitride piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) for use in range finding and gesture recognition applications. MEMS Aluminum Nitride (AlN) piezoelectric sensor technology has been chosen due to the relatively simple deposition process and compatibility with CMOS technology which enables the potential integration of the sensor and drive electronics on the same chip. Guided by both analytic and finite element models the optimum design parameters are chosen to obtain the desired resonant frequency, bandwidth, and maximum output sound pressure for the transmitter, and maximum sensitivity for the receiver. We are currently exploring several conceptual designs, using different fabrication processes, to improve robustness while maintaining the performance.
Contact Information orozen@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN628
Project title Novel Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Based on High-Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUTs)
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project piezoelectric, ultrasound transducers, medical imaging, fingerprint sensors
Researchers Yipeng Lu, Stephanie Fung, Qi Wang, Hao-Yen Tang
Time submitted Thursday 22nd of January 2015 09:32:13 AM
Abstract The goal of this project is to design and fabricate a novel ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on high-frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUTs). Present fingerprint sensors in portable devices, such as capacitive fingerprint sensors, have failed to gain wide acceptance due to their susceptibility to contamination from oils, perspiration and dirt. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensors solve these problems, but devices currently available are too large and costly for deployment in consumer devices. Here, an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on PMUTs fully integrated with CMOS ASIC is proposed and demonstrated. 1-D pulse-echo imaging of steel phantom using 20×8 PMUT array with electronic scanning is demonstrated with echo voltage amplitude ~150 mV. 2-D pulse-echo imaging of PDMS fingerprint phantom with ~600 um pitch similar to human fingerprint pattern is demonstrated.
Contact Information yplu@ucdavis.edu, dahorsley@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN780 New Project
Project title Impedance Spectroscopy to Monitor Fracture Healing
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Monica C. Lin
Time submitted Thursday 22nd of January 2015 05:58:54 PM
Abstract An estimated 7.9 million fracture injuries occur each year in the United States. Of these, 10% of fractures result in delayed or non-union, with this number rising to 46% when they occur in conjunction with vascular injury. Current methods of monitoring include taking X-rays and making clinical observations. However, radiographic techniques lag and physician examination of injury is fraught with subjectivity. No standardized methods exist to assess the extent of healing that has taken place in a fracture, revealing the need for a diagnostic device that can reliably detect non-union in its early pathologic phases. Electrical impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize different tissues, and we hypothesize that this technique can be applied to fractures to distinguish between the various types of tissue present in the clearly defined stages of healing. We are developing an objective measurement tool that utilizes impedance spectroscopy to monitor fracture healing, with the goal of providing physicians with more information that can resolve the initial stages of fracture healing. This would enable early intervention to prevent problem fractures from progressing to non-union.
Contact Information monica.lin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN714
Project title Impedance Sensing Device to Monitor Pressure Ulcers
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Wound Healing, Impedance Spectroscopy
Researchers Amy Liao, Monica C. Lin
Time submitted Thursday 22nd of January 2015 05:24:57 PM
Abstract Chronic cutaneous wounds affect millions of people each year and take billions of dollars to treat. Formation of pressure ulcers is considered a "never event" - an inexcusable, adverse event that occurs in a healthcare setting. Current monitoring solutions (pressure-distributing beds, repositioning patients every few hours, etc) are very expensive and labor intensive. In response to this challenge, we are developing a novel, flexible monitoring device that utilizes impedance spectroscopy to measure and characterize tissue health, thus allowing physicians to objectively monitor progression of wound healing as well as to identify high-risk areas of skin to prevent formation of pressure ulcers. Previous studies that examined the dielectric response of cell suspensions and tissues have identified several distinct dispersions associated with particular molecular-level processes that can be used to distinguish between tissue types. We are utilizing impedance spectroscopy to detect subtle changes in tissue, enabling objective assessment and providing a unique insight into the condition of a wound. Wireless capability can be implemented to allow for remote monitoring. In parallel, efforts are being made to transfer this technology onto resorbable substrates to create a device that can monitor internal wound healing and readily dissolve after healing.
Contact Information amy.liao@berkeley.edu, monica.lin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN765
Project title Full-Field Strain Sensor for Hernia Mesh Repairs
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project strain
Researchers Amy Liao
Time submitted Thursday 22nd of January 2015 05:15:33 PM
Abstract Each year, more than 400,000 ventral hernia repairs are performed in the United States. A hernia is the protrusion of an organ through a weak spot in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue that normal contains it. Large ventral hernias (hernias that occur in the abdominal wall) are typically treated by suturing in a surgical mesh to cover and overlap the hernia defect. The surgical mesh provides additional support to the damaged tissue surrounding the hernia. However, in 25-40% of patients, the hernia repair fails, resulting in recurrence of the hernia, along with other complications including infection and intestinal obstruction. We hypothesize that a major cause of hernia recurrence is the unequal distribution of stress across the mesh resulting in high stress concentrations at the tissue-mesh interface, particularly at the site of mesh fixation to the abdominal wall muscles. Over time the mesh is pulled away from the abdominal wall at the high stress concentrations and the hernia defect recurs. We propose to design a biocompatible, instrumented patch, capable of mapping the 2D strain topography placed on the mesh. The sensor will enable surgeons to actively identify and address areas of high stress during the surgery by modifying the surgical procedure to redistribute stress more evenly, thus decreasing the rate of hernia recurrence. Furthermore, our long term goal is to design a hernia mesh that contains strain gauges and the associated circuitry such that once implanted in the body the prosthetic can alert patients when they are engaging in activities that place high stress on the implant. Such a dynamic, interactive hernia mesh would empower patients to actively participate in their post- operative care in a way that is personalized and unprecedented in surgery.
Contact Information amy.liao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN769
Project title Acousto-Optic Modulation of Brain Activity: Novel Techniques for Optogenetic Stimulation and Imaging
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Tri-Institutional Brain R&D Initiative
Keywords of the Project Acousto-optics, Nonlinear nanocrystals, Brain, Central nervous system
Researchers Maysam Chamanzar
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:28:21 PM
Abstract One of the fundamental challenges in monitoring and modulating central nervous system activity is the lack of tools for non- invasive interrogation of local neuronal ensembles simultaneously in different regions of the brain. Despite recent advances in neural modulation techniques, including a rapidly expanding optogenetic and imaging toolset, still we lack a robust, minimally- invasive optogenetic stimulation platform. The ability to independently deliver light to multiple, highly- localized regions of the brain would drastically improve in vivo optogenetic experiments. Illuminating a large volume of brain using light sources above the brain surface does not provide the requisite spatial resolution, and since the intensity diminishes rapidly, only a small fraction of target neurons in the vicinity of the light source (~200 µm) will be excited. Increasing the light source power, on the other hand, results in the generation of excessive heat in the brain and the potential for tissue damage. In this project, we use specially designed up converting nanocrystal particles (UCNP) to deliver light locally to neurons. We use an acoustic-optics modality to deliver and steer light in the brain from outside without causing damage to the brain tissue.
Contact Information chamanzar@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN699
Project title A Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale Electrophysiology
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Neuroengineering, Nanoprobes, Optogenetics, ASIC, BioMEMS
Researchers Maysamreza Chamanzar
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 12:28:45 PM
Abstract Truly large-scale electrophysiology simultaneous recording of thousands of individual neurons in multiple brain areas remains an elusive goal of neuroscience. The traditional approach of studying single neurons in isolation assumes that the brain can be understood one component at a time. However, in order to fully understand the function of whole brain circuits, it is essential to observe the interactions of large numbers of neurons in multiple brain areas simultaneously with high spatiotemporal resolution. This project will establish a complete system for multi-scale electrophysiology in awake, freely behaving mice, using state-of-the-art nano neural interfaces comprising of tiny silicon probes integrated with on- chip optical waveguides and compliant monolithic polymer cables connected to a unique light-weight head-mounted recording system built around a commercially available application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been custom designed for electrophysiological recordings, combining signal amplification, filtering, signal multiplexing, and digital sampling on a single chip. We demonstrate the high-resolution excitation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons imaged on a two-photon microscope by evoking action potentials in different parts of cortex. The entire process, including post-fabrication system integration, has been designed to leverage existing consumer manufacturing processes, making our probe technology mass- producible and widely accessible at low cost.
Contact Information chamanzar@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN745
Project title Wafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube-Based Neural Probes
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Konlin Shen
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 05:36:06 PM
Abstract Current in-vivo methods of electrical recordings of the brain are hampered by low spatial resolution, invasiveness to the surrounding tissue, and scalability. Carbon nanotube based electrodes are ideal for intracellular neural recordings due to their small size and flexibility, allowing for higher density arrays and less damage to the brain. However, current methods for selective placement and alignment of carbon nanotubes cannot be done easily on a wafer scale. This project aims to solve this issue in order to create wafer-scale carbon nanotube based neural probes for intracellular recordings.
Contact Information konlin@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN716
Project title Neural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic BrainMachine Interfaces
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Fellowship
Keywords of the Project brain-machine interfaces, ultrasonic energy transfer and harvesting, backscatter communication
Researchers Dongjin Seo
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 01:16:31 PM
Abstract A major hurdle in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is the lack of an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a substantial fraction of a primate lifetime. Recently, sub-mm implantable, wireless electromagnetic (EM) neural interfaces have been demonstrated in an effort to extend system longevity. However, EM systems do not scale down in size well due to the severe inefficiency of coupling radio waves at mm and sub-mm scales. We propose an alternative wireless power and data telemetry scheme using distributed, ultrasonic backscattering systems to record high frequency (~kHz) neural activity. Such systems will require two fundamental technology innovations: 1) thousands of 10 – 100 um scale, free-floating, independent sensor nodes, or neural dust, that detect and report local extracellular electrophysiological data via ultrasonic backscattering, and 2) a sub-cranial ultrasonic interrogator that establishes power and communication links with the neural dust. To test the feasibility of this approach, we performed the first in-vivo experiments in the rat model, where we were able to recover mV-level action potential signals from the peripheral nerves. Further miniaturization of implantable interface based on ultrasound would pave the way for both truly chronic BMI and massive scaling in the number of neural recordings from the nervous system.
Contact Information djseo@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN718
Project title Direct Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular Robots
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Keywords of the Project microbiorobotics, synthetic biology, biosensors, stochastic control, hybrid biological systems, bacterial electrophysiology
Researchers Tom J. Zajdel
Time submitted Wednesday 28th of January 2015 01:53:24 PM
Abstract We propose to design, fabricate and test a millimeter-scale, programmable cellular- synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environments. Three integrated technologies will make this possible: 1) two-way electron transfer between an electrode and E. coli for rapid communication between abiotic core and cells; 2) a flexible polymer + CMOS sensing and computation abiotic core; 3) synthetic cell adhesion genes which allow for patternable self-assembly of bacterial cells onto the abiotic substrate. If successful, this will be the first demonstration of a millimeter-scale synthetic autonomous multi-cellular hybrid with organic and man-made components. A primary goal of this work will be to enable abiotic/biotic two- way communication via electron transfer channels engineered into cells in contact with microelectrodes. We suggest that such a fusion would enable control techniques that rely on combinations of gene expression, cell-level sensing / actuation and CMOS digital computation.
Contact Information zajdel@eecs.berkeley.edu, maharbiz@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN795 New Project
Project title An Implantable Micro-Sensor for Cancer Surveillance
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Stefanie V. Garcia, Leticia Ibarra
Time submitted Thursday 05th of February 2015 07:57:26 PM
Abstract We aim to develop a micro surveillance device for early identification of cancerous cell growth in collaboration with radiation oncology research from UCSF. UCSF will develop a molecular probe that specifically targets prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is over-expressed on prostate cancer cells. By radiolabelling these probes, cancer sites may be monitored in conjunction with an implantable array. We will design a 100x100 um semiconductor radiation sensor that can feasibly detect and localize cancer recurrence from 10^4 – 10^5 cells when placed near a cancer site. The sensors will use ultrasonic methods for power and signal transmission, as demonstrated in Dongjin et al, arXiv preprint arXiV:1307.2196 (2013). Initial sensor design will enhance CMOS device sensitivity to time dependent signal variation and will also explore signal recovery in the limited biological window where the radiolabelled probe is detectable.
Contact Information stefanievgarcia@berkeley.edu, ibarra.leticia@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN731
Project title Flexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural Recording
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project DARPA
Keywords of the Project neural recording, scalable, flexible, surgical robot, minimally invasive
Researchers Timothy L. Hanson
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 06:01:46 PM
Abstract Current approaches to interfacing with the nervous system mainly rely on stiff electrode materials, which work remarkably well, but suffer degradation from chronic immune response due to mechanical impedance mismatch and blood-brain barrier disruption. This current technology also poses limits on recording depth, spacing, and location. In this project we aim to ameliorate these issues by developing a system of very fine and flexible electrodes for recording from nervous tissue, a robotic system for manipulating and implanting these electrodes, and a means for integrating electrodes with neural processing chips. We have fabricated five versions of the electrodes, and have demonstrated their manual and automated insertion into an agarose tissue proxy and ex-vivo brain using a etched tungsten needle. We have also fabricated and tested in agarose three revisions of the inserter robot. The most recent inserter robot design uses a replaceable electrode cartridge to which electrodes are mounted; these electrodes are made on a 5um thick polyimide substrate with a parylene peel-away backing. The parylene backing holds the fine wires and keeps them from tangling until they are inserted, and provides a more robust means of handling and mounting the structures. Simultaneously, we have been developing a machine for laser and resistance micro-welding the insertion needle, and have completed several promising test needles. We hope to test the full system in rats within a month.
Contact Information tlh24@phy.ucsf.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN573
Project title Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Arrays for Chronic Stimulation and Recording in Insects
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project State
Keywords of the Project carbon fiber microelectrode electrode array insect electrophysiology chronic stimulation recording fly beetle
Researchers Travis L. Massey
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 11:30:26 PM
Abstract This project aims to create an array of carbon fibers for insect electrophysiology.
Contact Information tlmassey@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN571
Project title Implantable Microengineered Neural Interfaces for Studying and Controlling Insects
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Industry
Keywords of the Project insect, vision, neural interface, micro aerial vehicle
Researchers Joshua van Kleef, Kaylee Mann
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 09:17:21 PM
Abstract Our goal is to control the flight of an insect by hijacking its sensory systems. Although significant funding has gone into developing micro air vehicles (MAVs, wingspan< 15cm), flying insects still significantly outperform the most sophisticated flying robots in efficiency, flight time, stability and maneuverability. The restrictions that such a small spatial scale places on the amount of energy that can be stored on-board and on actuator efficiency, means this gap is expected to continue for some years to come. We are therefore pursuing a novel MAV design that uses an actual flying insect. We aim to produce small insect backpacks capable of receiving commands remotely and providing power to a combination of neural and optical stimulators. The patterns of stimulation will allow us to trick the insects motor-sensory system into responding to fictitious self-movements. We aim to use these ‘ghost’ stimuli to remote-control the insect’s flight while at the same time capitalizing on their remarkable natural flying abilities. The project has now advanced to testing devices in free flight and optimizing the stimulation parameters.
Contact Information vankleef@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN771
Project title Silicon Carbide ECoGs for Chronic Implants in Brain-Machine Interfaces
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Camilo A. Diaz-Botia, Lunet E. Luna
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 10:18:42 AM
Abstract Electrocorticography (ECoG) is an excellent brain mapping technique that places large arrays of electrodes directly on the cortex of the brain, and has been used in patients for several decades. Utilization of this technique results in an improved trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution. In recent years, the development of high-density, polymer-based micro- ECoGs has pushed the field even further, allowing even better neural circuit observation in acute recordings. Despite these advances, an unsolved challenge remains in terms of device longevity. Polymer-based micro-ECoGs are not suitable for chronic implantation within brain tissue, the interfacial layers within the device allow molecule penetration causing delamination, which overtime leads to device failure. However, silicon carbide (SiC)-based micro ECoGs are expected to enhance device structural and chemical stability, and thus lengthen the device lifetime compared to polymer-based micro- ECoGs. SiC is a biocompatible that can provide micro-ECoGs with the mechanical and chemical stability they are currently lacking within the reactive or harsh-environment of the body. Our goal is to design SiC- based micro-ECoG arrays that can serve as effective, robust chronic implants.
Contact Information cadiazb@berkeley.edu, lunet@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Roya Maboudian

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN756
Project title MEMS Devices for Oral Delivery of Proteins and Peptides
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project MEMS, Oral Drug Delivery
Researchers Kiana Aran, Marc Chooljian
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 01:03:06 PM
Abstract Oral delivery of proteins and large molecule drugs has been a challenge due to the denaturing effects of digestive environment, enzymatic destruction and poor GI mucus permeability, leading to extremely low drug bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In spite of considerable efforts over the past decades, oral delivery of proteins and large molecule drugs with low therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability remains a major challenge. There is a great need for a suitable oral delivery system which can maintain the protein integrity, improve bioavailability and overcome the mucus barrier for maximum absorption. MucuJet is a high pressure jet-injector oral pill, for oral to systemic delivery of drugs. MucuJet can protect drugs from digestive destruction and can eject drugs with high pressure in the lumen of small intestine which can penetrate intestinal mucus, thereby overcoming the limitation associated with low diffusion rate across mucosal barrier. The feasibility of using MucuJet for enhancing intestinal absorption was tested in vitro which indicated that MucuJet is capable of high velocity drug release and is able to increase protein absorption in short amount of time with no significant effect on cell viability.
Contact Information k.aran@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN757
Project title Biosensors Based on Biologically Responsive Polymers
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Reactive oxygen species
Researchers Kiana Aran
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 12:35:52 PM
Abstract This project presents the design, fabrication and testing of novel plastic-based lab-on a chip (LOC) biosensors which utilize stimuli responsive polymers as their recognition element. The biosensors are composed of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) coated with a thin film of a responsive polymer. In the presence of stimuli, the responsive polymer degrades from the surface of the IDE, and generates a measurable electrical signal that correlates with the amount of stimuli present in the sample. This technology can be utilized as an accurate, label-free, cost-effective method for engineering biosensors for clinical applications.
Contact Information k.aran@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy

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BioMEMS
ProjectIDBPN729
Project title Development of Microfluidic Devices with Embedded Microelectrodes using Electrodeposition and Hot Embossing
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project BSAC Member Fees
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Marc Chooljian, Kathryn Fink
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 01:05:10 PM
Abstract The use of microfluidic devices has experienced a tremendous increase over the last years, especially valuable for healthcare applications. In this context plastic materials are increasingly relevant especially for large scale fabrication and commercialization. However plastics are still not widely used at the research level due to the lack of available inexpensive industrial–like fabrication equipment. In this work we describe a rapid and highly cost-effective approach for fabricating plastic microfluidic devices with embedded microelectrodes allowing 2D and 3D configurations. We present an interdigitated microelectrode configuration applied to impedance cytometry and cellular electroporation/lysis on chip devices as an example of the great potential of this technology. Our long-term goals are to further explore the potential of hot-embossed microscale devices as platforms for complete BioMEMS devices. This includes the integration of functionalized elements and silicon-based biosensors.
Contact Information mschooljian@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN711
Project title Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based Sensors
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Biosensor, healthcare, graphene, microfluidics
Researchers Kiana aran, Kathryn Fink
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 12:37:28 PM
Abstract Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1C monitoring are all valuable tools in the health management of the aging population, especially given the increase in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Even for glucose monitoring, the challenges obtaining sufficiently accurate and reliable measurements are so significant that the FDA is contemplating more stringent standards. Guido Freckmann, et al., J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 6, 1060-1075, 2012, have compared 43 blood glucose self-monitoring systems. Out of this, 34 systems were completely assessed and 27 (79.4%) systems fulfilled the minimal accuracy requirements and only 18 (52.9%) of 34 systems fulfilled the requirements of the proposed tighter criteria in the current standards draft. None of them meet the even more stringent requirement of ISO 2012 and FDA. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions and rising health care costs, there is an urgent need for significantly enhanced BG monitoring systems for PC applications. POC tests for other biomedically important analytes are generally even less accurate. The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop new sensor platforms that will provide increased sensitivity and accuracy in point-of-care situations. This is a joint project with Harvard Medical School and Vanderbilt University.
Contact Information liepmann@berkeley.edu; jparedes@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

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Microfluidics
ProjectIDBPN732
Project title The Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid Dynamics
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Kathryn Fink, Karthik Prasad
Time submitted Monday 02nd of February 2015 01:01:08 PM
Abstract The unique properties of blood flow in microchannels have been studied for nearly a century; much of the observed blood-specific dynamics is attributed to the biconcave shape of red blood cells. However, for almost twice as long biologists have observed and characterized the differences in the size and shape of red blood cells among vertebrates. With a few exceptions, mammals share the denucleated biconcave shape of erythrocytes but vary in size; oviparous vertebrates have nucleated ovoid red blood cells with size variations of a full order of magnitude. We utilize micro-PIV and pressure drop measurements to analyze blood flow of vertebrate species in microchannels, with a focus on understanding how cell size and shape alter the cell-free layer and velocity profile of whole blood. The results offer insight into the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and the selection of animal blood for the design and evaluation of biological microfluidic devices.
Contact Information kdfink@berkeley.edu, liepmann@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN770
Project title Chemical Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (CS-FET)
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project CS-FET, Gas Sensor, microfabrication, TMO
Researchers Hossain M. Fahad, Hiroshi Shiraki
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 08:27:58 AM
Abstract Silicon IC-based fabrication processing will be used to develop novel compact gas sensors that, unlike current sensors, will operate at room temperature, consume minimal power, exhibit superior sensitivity, provide chemical selectivity and multi-gas detection capabilities, and offer the prospect of very low-cost replication for broad-area deployment. We name this device structure “Chemical Sensitive FET” or “CS-FET.” The operation of the CS-FET involves transistor parametric differentiation under influence of differentiated gas exposures.
Contact Information hossain.fahad@berkeley.edu, shiraki@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN704
Project title Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on Metal
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Solar Cells, Photovoltaics, Indium Phosphide, InP, VLS, Thin Film
Researchers Maxwell Zheng, Mark Hettick, Joy Wang, Weitse Hsu, Peter Lobaccaro
Time submitted Wednesday 04th of February 2015 10:10:39 AM
Abstract Here, we develop a technique that enables direct growth of III-V materials on non- epitaxial substrates. Here, by utilizing a planar liquid phase template, we extend the VLS growth mode to enable polycrystalline indium phosphide (InP) thin film growth on Mo foils.
Contact Information mszheng@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN792 New Project
Project title Thin Film InP Photoelectrochemical Cells for Efficient, Low-Cost Solar Fuel Production
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Mark Hettick, Maxwell Zheng
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 06:57:57 PM
Abstract While bulk p-type InP wafers have produced high efficiency photoelectrochemical water-splitting cells, the high cost of epitaxial substrates limits viability at a larger scale. Here, we utilize low-cost growth of InP on non-epitaxial substrates with the thin-film vapor-liquid-solid method to provide high efficiency, scalable photocathode cells for the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Contact Information mark.hettick@berkeley.edu, mszheng@eecs.berkeley.edu, ajavey@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN777 New Project
Project title Nonepitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline III-V Semiconductors onto Insulating Substrates
Status of the Project New
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Kevin Chen
Time submitted Thursday 26th of February 2015 01:26:33 PM
Abstract III-V semiconducting materials have many characteristics such as high electron mobilities and direct band gaps that make them desirable for many electronic applications including high performance transistors and solar cells. However, these materials generally have a high cost of production which significantly limits their use in many commercial applications. We aim to explore new growth methods which can grow high quality crystalline III-V films, using InP as an example substrate, onto non-epitaxial substrates. In addition to excellent crystal quality, critical considerations include cost and scalability for commercially viable applications.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN747
Project title Electronic Skin: Fully Printed Electronic Sensor Networks
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Flexible, printed electronics, thin film transistor
Researchers Kevin Chen
Time submitted Tuesday 27th of January 2015 02:26:52 PM
Abstract Large area networks of sensors which are flexible and can be laminated conformally on nonplanar surfaces can enable many different applications in areas such as prosthetics, display technology, and remote stimuli monitoring. For large area applications, printed electronics are favorable over traditional photolithography and shadow mask technology from a cost and throughput point of view and we demonstrate proof-of-concept for such a printed “electronic skin” system by printing a carbon nanotube based thin film transistor (TFT) active matrix backplane using a reverse roll to plate gravure printing design. This design allows for yields of up to 97% with printing conducted in an ambient environment and mobilities of up to 9 cm2/V⋅s, the highest reported for a fully printed TFT. Pressure sensors are then integrated onto the active matrix backplane, which enables mapping of the pressure profile across the active matrix area. In the future, this could be integrated with other types of sensors and devices to enable more functionality.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN776
Project title Wearable Electronic Tape
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project
Researchers Hiroki Ota, Kevin Chen
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:37:48 AM
Abstract We demonstrate a high-performance wearable piezoelectric electronic-tape (E-tape) for motion sensing based on a carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanoparticle (AgNP) composite encased in PDMS and VHB flexible thin films. E-tape sensors directly attached to human skin exhibit fast and accurate electric response to bending and stretching movements which induce change in conductivity with high sensitivity. Furthermore, E-tape sensors for a wide range of applications can be realized by the combination of controlling the concentration of AgNPs in the CNT network and designing appropriate device architectures. The reliability and scalability of E- tape sensors combined with compatibility with conventional micro-fabrication open up new routes for integration of nanoelectronics into flexible human interfaces at the system level.
Contact Information hiroki.ota@berkeley.edu, kqchen37@gmail.com
Advisor Ali Javey

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Physical Sensors & Devices
ProjectIDBPN746
Project title Liquid Heterojunction Sensors
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project NSF
Keywords of the Project Microfluidics, flexible, sensor, hetero-junction
Researchers Hiroki Ota, Kevin Chen
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 10:39:29 AM
Abstract In recent years, mechanically deformable devices and sensors have been widely explored for various applications such as paper-thin displays and electronic skin for prosthetics and robotics. Liquids are extremely deformable and have shown promise for these applications, with previous works demonstrating pressure sensors with the ability to be stretched by up to 250% before failure. However, current technology is limited to a single liquid material as liquids tend to intermix when placed together, limiting the range of sensors that can be achieved. Here, in this work, we show a new concept for a liquid-liquid “hetero-junction” temperature sensor with liquid InGaSn metal as a passive interconnect and an imidazolium based ionic liquid as the active sensing element. By proper choice of liquids and design of the liquid-liquid interface, we are able to prevent the liquids from mixing, leading to exciting prospects for more complex liquid based flexible electronics.
Contact Information hiroki.ota@berkeley.edu, kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
ProjectIDBPN694
Project title Monolayer Semiconductor Devices
Status of the Project Continuing
fundingsource of the Project Federal
Keywords of the Project Monolayer; Layered chalcogenide; Electronics
Researchers Mahmut Tosun, Tania Roy, Daisuke Kiriya
Time submitted Tuesday 03rd of February 2015 04:35:28 PM
Abstract Two-dimensional layered semiconductors present a promising material platform for band-to-band- tunneling devices given their homogeneous band edge steepness due to their atomically flat thickness. Here, we experimentally demonstrate interlayer band-to-band tunneling in vertical MoS2/WSe2 van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures using a dual-gate device architecture. The electric potential and carrier concentration of MoS2 and WSe2 layers are independently controlled by the two symmetric gates. The same device can be gate modulated to behave as either an Esaki diode with negative differential resistance, a backward diode with large reverse bias tunneling current, or a forward rectifying diode with low reverse bias current. Notably, a high gate coupling efficiency of ~ 80% is obtained for tuning the interlayer band alignments, arising from weak electrostatic screening by the atomically thin layers. This work presents an advance in fundamental understanding of the interlayer coupling and electron tunneling in semiconductor vdW heterostructures with important implications toward the design of atomically thin tunnel transistors.
Contact Information mtosun@lbl.gov, tania.roy@berkeley.edu, kiriya@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey