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Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center
 

The Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center (BSAC) is the Graduated National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Microsensors and Microactuators. We conduct industry-relevant, interdisciplinary research on micro- and nano-scale sensors, moving mechanical elements, microfluidics, materials, processes & systems that take advantage of progress made in integrated-circuit, bio, and polymer technologies.

BSAC Current Active Projects as of May 25, 2016

Number of records: 86
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PROJECT MATERIALS
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PROJECT TITLEADVISOR
1MicropowerBPN742BPN742 Website3D Carbon-Based Materials for Electrochemical ApplicationsLiwei Lin
2MicropowerBPN782BPN782 WebsiteFlexible Micro Supercapacitors and Strain SensorsLiwei Lin
3NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN672BPN672 WebsiteSolar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water SplittingLiwei Lin
4NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN800BPN800 WebsiteSolution Processed Transparent ElectronicsLiwei Lin
5Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN772BPN772 WebsiteGraphene for Room Temperature Gas SensorsLiwei Lin
6Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN743BPN743 WebsiteHighly Responsive pMUTsLiwei Lin
7Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN799BPN799 Website3D Printed MicrosensorsLiwei Lin
8MicrofluidicsBPN796BPN796 WebsiteLow Reynolds Number Mixing using 3D Printed MicrofluidicsLiwei Lin
9MicrofluidicsBPN706BPN706 WebsiteSingle-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic LithographyLiwei Lin
10MicrofluidicsBPN787BPN787 Website3D-Printed Molds for Rapid Assembly of PDMS-based Microfluidic DevicesLiwei Lin
11MicrofluidicsBPN774BPN774 Website3D Printed Integrated Microfluidic CircuitryLiwei Lin, Luke P. Lee
12BioMEMSBPN831BPN831 WebsiteSample-to-Answer Multiplex Molecular Diagnostics for Subtyping Pathogenic Bacteria New ProjectLuke P. Lee
13BioMEMSBPN829BPN829 WebsiteIntegrated Multiplexed Optical Microfluidic System (iMOMs) for Dengue Diagnosis New ProjectLuke P. Lee
14MicrofluidicsBPN824BPN824 WebsiteInvestigation of Dengue Infection’s Neurological Complications via a Comprehensive in-vitro Brain Model New ProjectLuke P. Lee
16BioMEMSBPN804BPN804 WebsiteA Rapid, Integrated Molecular Diagnostic for Gram-Negative Pathogen Detection and Identification Based on Antibody-Based Capture and Photonic PCRLuke P. Lee
17MicrofluidicsBPN730BPN730 WebsiteMicrofluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care DiagnosticsLuke P. Lee
18NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN811BPN811 WebsiteHigh-Throughput Integrated Chiral Analysis Platform (hiCAP) for Active Drug DiscoveryLuke P. Lee
19NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN809BPN809 WebsitePhotonic Cavity Bioreactor for High-throughput Screening of MicroalgaeLuke P. Lee
20NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN807BPN807 WebsiteIntegrated Molecular Diagnostic System for Alzheimer’s DiseaseLuke P. Lee
21Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN826BPN826 WebsiteAutonomous Flying Microrobots New ProjectKristofer S. J. Pister
22Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN810BPN810 WebsiteNon-Intrusive Wireless Current Metering of Standard Power Cables Using Vector Magnetic Field MeasurementsKristofer S.J. Pister
23Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN735BPN735 WebsiteWalking Silicon MicrorobotsKristofer S. J. Pister
24Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN744BPN744 WebsiteSelf-Destructing SiliconKristofer S.J. Pister, Michel M. Maharbiz
25Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN803BPN803 WebsiteSingle Chip MoteKristofer S.J. Pister, Ali M. Niknejad
26BioMEMSBPN685BPN685 WebsiteReal-Time Intraoperative Fluorescent Imager for Microscopic Residual Tumor in Breast CancerBernhard E. Boser, Mekhail Anwar
27NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN665BPN665 WebsiteFrequency Modulated Laser Source for 3D ImagingBernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Eli Yablonovitch, Connie J. Chang-Hasnain
28Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN608BPN608 WebsiteFM GyroscopeBernhard E. Boser
29NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN819BPN819 WebsiteHybrid Porous Nanowire Arrays for High Energy Supercapacitor New ProjectRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
30NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN827BPN827 WebsiteHydride Metal Oxide, Silicon Carbide Electrode as a Synergistic Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction New ProjectRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
31NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN786BPN786 WebsiteNanoPlasmonics for Sensing and EnergyRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
32NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN762BPN762 WebsiteMicroheater-Based Platform for Low Power Combustible Gas SensingRoya Maboudian, Alex Zettl
33NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN790BPN790 WebsiteLow Power Microheater-Based Platform for Gas SensingRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
34NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN813BPN813 WebsiteNovel Hierarchical Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Conductometric Gas SensingRoya Maboudian
35NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN797BPN797 WebsiteSynthesis and Friction Characteristics of Gecko-Inspired AdhesivesRoya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro
36BioMEMSBPN729BPN729 WebsiteDevelopment of Microfluidic Devices with Embedded Microelectrodes using Electrodeposition and Hot EmbossingDorian Liepmann
37MicrofluidicsBPN732BPN732 WebsiteThe Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid DynamicsDorian Liepmann
38MicrofluidicsBPN711BPN711 WebsitePoint-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based SensorsDorian Liepmann
39BioMEMSBPN756BPN756 WebsiteMEMS Devices for Oral Delivery of Proteins and PeptidesDorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy
40Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN821BPN821 Website3D Printed Smart Application with Embedded Electronics Sensors and Systems New ProjectAli Javey
41Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN818BPN818 WebsiteFully-integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in-situ perspiration analysis New ProjectAli Javey
42NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN822BPN822 WebsiteMonolayer Semiconductor Optoelectronics New ProjectAli Javey
43NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN694BPN694 WebsiteMonolayer Semiconductor DevicesAli Javey
44NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN777BPN777 WebsiteNonepitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline III-V Semiconductors onto Insulating SubstratesAli Javey
45Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN747BPN747 WebsiteElectronic Skin: Fully Printed Electronic Sensor NetworksAli Javey
46NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN704BPN704 WebsiteVapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on MetalAli Javey
47Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN770BPN770 WebsiteChemical Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (CS-FET)Ali Javey
48NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN751BPN751 Website64x64 Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch with Sub-Microsecond Response TimeMing C. Wu
49NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN820BPN820 WebsiteMulticast Silicon Photonic MEMS Switches New ProjectMing C. Wu
50NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN721BPN721 WebsiteElectronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (EPHI) Component Fabrication, Design, and CharacterizationMing C. Wu
51NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN825BPN825 WebsiteDirect On-Chip Optical Synthesizer (DODOS) New ProjectMing C. Wu
52NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN788BPN788 WebsiteOptical Phased Array for LIDARMing C. Wu
53NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN458BPN458 WebsiteOptical Antenna-Based nanoLEDMing C. Wu, Ali Javey
54NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & ImagingBPN703BPN703 WebsiteDirectly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light EmissionMing C. Wu
55NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & DevicesBPN798BPN798 WebsiteHyper Wideband-Enabled RF Messaging (HERMES)Ming C. Wu
56MicrofluidicsBPN552BPN552 WebsiteLight-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting) New ProjectMing C. Wu
57Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN354BPN354 WebsiteThe Nanoshift Concept: Innovation Through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication of MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean TechnologiesMichael D. Cable, John M. Huggins
58Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN828BPN828 WebsiteZero Quiescent Power Micromechanical Receiver New ProjectClark T.-C. Nguyen
59Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN540BPN540 WebsiteTemperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
60Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN814BPN814 WebsiteUHF Capacitive-Gap Transduced Resonators With High Cx/CoClark T.-C. Nguyen
61Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN433BPN433 WebsiteA Micromechanical Power ConverterClark T.-C. Nguyen
62Wireless, RF & Smart DustBPN701BPN701 WebsiteBridged Micromechanical FiltersClark T.-C. Nguyen
63BioMEMSBPN816BPN816 WebsiteCytokine fast detection New ProjectMichel M. Maharbiz
64Package, Process & MicroassemblyBPN823BPN823 WebsiteAutomated System for Assembling a High-Density Microwire Neural Recording Array New ProjectMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
65BioMEMSBPN771BPN771 WebsiteSilicon Carbide ECoGs for Chronic Implants in Brain-Machine InterfacesMichel M. Maharbiz, Roya Maboudian
66BioMEMSBPN573BPN573 WebsiteCarbon Fiber Microelectrode Array for Chronic Stimulation and RecordingMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
67BioMEMSBPN795BPN795 WebsiteAn Implantable Micro-Sensor for Cancer SurveillanceMichel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister
68BioMEMSBPN718BPN718 WebsiteDirect Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular RobotsMichel M. Maharbiz
69BioMEMSBPN716BPN716 WebsiteUltrasonic Wireless Implants for Neuro-modulationMichel M. Maharbiz
70BioMEMSBPN699BPN699 WebsiteA Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale ElectrophysiologyMichel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche
71BioMEMSBPN769BPN769 WebsiteAcousto-Optic Modulation of Brain Activity: Novel Techniques for Optogenetic Stimulation and ImagingMichel M. Maharbiz
72BioMEMSBPN745BPN745 WebsiteWafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube-Based Neural ProbesMichel M. Maharbiz
73Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN808BPN808 WebsiteAcoustic Detection of Neural ActivityMichel M. Maharbiz
74Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN731BPN731 WebsiteFlexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural RecordingMichel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes
75Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN765BPN765 WebsiteFull-Field Strain Sensor for Hernia Mesh RepairsMichel M. Maharbiz
76Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN714BPN714 WebsiteImpedance Sensing Device to Monitor Pressure UlcersMichel M. Maharbiz
77Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN780BPN780 WebsiteImpedance Spectroscopy to Monitor Fracture HealingMichel M. Maharbiz
78Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN802BPN802 WebsiteElectret-Enabled Energy Harvesters for Use Near Current-Carrying ConductorsRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright
79Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN801BPN801 WebsiteEmergency Power-Line Energy HarvestersRichard M. White, Paul K. Wright
81Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN817BPN817 WebsiteUltra-Low Power AlN MEMS-CMOS Microphones and Accelerometers New ProjectDavid A. Horsley, Rajeevan Amirtharajah
82Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN628BPN628 WebsiteNovel Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Based on High-Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUTs)David A. Horsley
83Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN722BPN722 Website3D Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor On a Chip Using Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUT)David A. Horsley, Bernhard E. Boser
84Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN466BPN466 WebsiteAir-Coupled Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound TransducersDavid A. Horsley
85Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN785BPN785 WebsiteScandium-doped AlN for MEMSDavid A. Horsley
86Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN599BPN599 WebsiteMEMS Electronic Compass: Three-Axis MagnetometerDavid A. Horsley
87Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN603BPN603 WebsiteMicro Rate-Integrating GyroscopeDavid A. Horsley
88Physical Sensors & DevicesBPN812BPN812 WebsiteImproving Nonlinear Micro-Gyroscope PerformanceDavid A. Horsley

Project Abstracts

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Table of Projects
Micropower
Project IDBPN742
Project Title 3D Carbon-Based Materials for Electrochemical Applications
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Xining Zang
Abstract Carbon-based materials such as CNT (1D) and graphene (2D) have been widely studied as electrode materials in various applications, including sensing, catalyst and energy storage. The extraordinary properties of these carbon-based materials provide possible advantages in reduced reaction potential, low surface fouling, and large surface area. This project aims to investigate possible combination of the 1D and 2D carbon-based materials in the form of 3D structures. In this project, we first design and demonstrate a two-step CVD process to fabricate CNT-graphene and CNT-CNT 3D matrix electrodes which are applied in aqueous supercapacitor. The second CVD process directly assemble graphene and CNT onto the pre-grown VACNT forests, which not only increase the active surface area but also improve the electrical conductivity. Capacitance of CNT-CNT network enhanced 3.19 times, while CNT-graphene enhanced 2.24 times than the as grown VACNT coated with nickel. Further study of long term retention and impedance of the carbon based electrode is on the go. At the same time, by applying "water in salt" electrode with TiS2 modified anode we breakthrough the limitation of max 1.23 V output voltage of aqueous supercapacitor. Such result bring promises in shrink the state-of-art supercapacitor voltage while enhance the output energy density, which will great deduce the cost of supercapacitor application.
Contact Information xining.zang.me@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Micropower
Project IDBPN782
Project Title Flexible Micro Supercapacitors and Strain Sensors
Status Continuing
Funding Source Army/ARL
Keywords Flexible electronics, supercapacitor, strain sensor, nanofiber
Researchers Caiwei Shen
Abstract This project studies flexible micro supercapacitors and strain sensors based on conductive polymer nanofibers via the direct-write, near-field electrospinning process. Flexible solid-state micro supercapacitors show high energy density by using pseudocapacitive effect of the 3D nanoporous material. A capacitance of 0.41mF/cm2 is measured, 40X larger as compared with those of flat electrodes. The conductivity of the nanofibers is also found to be sensitive to deformation. Flexible and uniaxial strain sensors are constructed by the simple yet versatile manufacturing process, and a gauge factor of one order higher than the commercial devices is obtained. Mechanism study and performance optimization will be continued.
Contact Information shencw10@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN672
Project Title Solar Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Water Splitting
Status Continuing
Funding Source KAUST
Keywords Solar energy, photocatalysis, nano materials
Researchers Emmeline Kao
Abstract Hydrogen is a promising, environmentally-friendly fuel source for replacing fossil fuels in transportation and stationary power applications. Currently, most hydrogen is produced from non-renewable sources including natural gas, oil, and coal. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a new renewable energy technology that aims to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy. When light is absorbed by the photocatalyst, an electron-hole pair is generated that interacts with water molecules in a surface reduction-oxidation reaction to decompose the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The current challenge in PEC water splitting is finding low- cost, stable materials with good visible light absorption and high efficiency for water splitting. Silicon has demonstrated promising capabilities as photocatalysts due to its high visible light absorption, low cost, and high abundance. This project aims to improve the performance of silicon for water splitting by developing new high- surface area silicon photoelectrodes using chemical vapor deposition silicon.
Contact Information kao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN800
Project Title Solution Processed Transparent Electronics
Status New
Funding Source Industry
Keywords
Researchers Hyun Sung Park
Abstract Recently there has been growing interest in transparent conductive oxides(TCOs) and oxide semiconductors, they are key components for future transparent electronics devices. But there are needs for finding new TCOs and oxide semiconductors because the Indium and Galium are expensive rare earth material and the price is still increasing. Conventional vacuum based process is a also problem for large scale and complicated geometry devices. In this project, I introduced new TCO material(ATO) for the future transparent electronics devices by using solution process.
Contact Information hs23.park@gmail.com
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN772
Project Title Graphene for Room Temperature Gas Sensors
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Chemical Sensor, Gas Sensor, Graphene FET, Selectivity
Researchers Yumeng Liu
Abstract As air pollution from industrial and automobile emission becomes more and more severe, the personalized, integrated gas sensor is desirable for everyone to monitor everyday's air quality as well as their personal health condition non-invasively. Such sensor should have the desirable features like energy efficient, miniature size, accurate response (down to ppm level), and selectivity. Traditional bulk MOX based gas sensor works in the temperature range of 300 to 400 oC, which requires large amount of energy to power the heater. We here propose using graphene based field effect transistor as label-free sensor platform, to detect gas selectively by measuring its electrical properties at room temperature.
Contact Information yumengliu@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN743
Project Title Highly Responsive pMUTs
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (pMUTs), curved pMUTS, spherical piezoelectric elastic shells, bimorph pMUTs, dual electrode bimorph pMUT
Researchers Sina Akhbari, Benjamin Eovino
Abstract Ultrasonics has been realized as a nondestructive measurement method for a variety of applications, such as medical imaging, healthcare monitoring, structural testing, range finding, and motion sensing. In addition, high intensity ultrasound can be used in therapeutic treatments, such as: lithotripsy for kidney stone comminution, hyperthermia for cancer therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for laparoscopic surgery, and transcranial sonothrombolysis for brain stroke treatment. MEMS ultrasonic transducers are known to have several pronounced advantages over the conventional ultrasound devices, namely higher resolution, higher bandwidth, and lower power consumption. The main purpose of this project is to develop new architectures of Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (pMUT) with higher electro-mechano-acoustical energy efficiency and increased sensitivity while using CMOS-compatible fabrication technology, making them suitable for battery-powered handheld devices. The specific focus is on power-efficient hand-held medical devices for diagnosis/therapy with high acoustic pressure generation requirements.
Contact Information sina.akhbari68@gmail.com, beovino@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN799
Project Title 3D Printed Microsensors
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Microsensor, 3D printing, matallization
Researchers Casey Glick, Ilbey Karakurt, Hyung-Seok Jang
Abstract The three-dimensional (3D) additive printing process has shown great advantages in the field of rapid prototyping, and huge potentials in customized products due to its flexibility in geometrical designs and manufacturing. The goal of this project is to develop 3D printed, novel microsensors for various areas including RF communications, medical and biologic applications. One of the key research targets is to develop the formation technique of multiple materials and therefore realize functional structures.
Contact Information chenyang@berkeley.edu, cglick@berkeley.edu, ilbeykarakurt@berkeley.edu, hyungseok1024@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN796
Project Title Low Reynolds Number Mixing using 3D Printed Microfluidics
Status Continuing
Funding Source KAUST
Keywords 3D Printing, Microfluidics, Mixing
Researchers Casey C. Glick, Eric C. Sweet, Kevin A. Korner, Yash Attal, Gregory Slatton, Ryan Jew, Josh Chen
Abstract Mixing in microfluidic devices has long presented challenges due to the lack of significant turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. Although ample theoretical work has demonstrated methods to enhance microfluidic mixing (e.g., increasing vorticity, arranging chaotic flow profiles), many of these methods are difficult to achieve in practical microfluidic devices, requiring 2D approximations to fully 3D mixing enhancements. In this work, we will show that various designs for enhanced mixing are easily achievable using 3D printing. We will compare the performance of several different mixer designs using Finite Element Analysis and then 3D print and test the designs to see the extent of mixing actual fluidic components, using a novel visualization method to examine the flow profile at different locations within a microfluidic channel. Finally we will demonstrate that Symmetric Three Phase Mixing is easily accomplished using 3D printed structures.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu, kevin_korner@berkeley.edu, yattal7@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN706
Project Title Single-Layer Microfluidic Gain Valves via Optofluidic Lithography
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords microfluidic, gain, valve
Researchers Casey C. Glick, Kevin Korner
Abstract This project aims to create single-layer microfluidic gain valves for use in microfluidic devices. Autonomous microfluidic devices are essential for the long-term development of versatile biological and chemical platforms; however, the challenges of creating effective control mechanisms – e.g., the need for variable pressure sources, signal degradation in cascaded devices, and multi-stage manufacture methods – have proven considerable. Using in situ optofluidic lithography, we develop a single-layer pressure-based valve system with a static gain greater than unity. We will demonstrate the device in several microfluidic circuits, including logic gates and amplifiers. These pressure gain-based systems will enable microfluidic devices with a wide range of applications, such as flow rectifiers, oscillators, and high-precision pressure measurements. Due to ease of manufacture and design flexibility, this valve design could have widespread Lab-on-a-Chip applications by enabling self-regulation of microfluidic devices.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN787
Project Title 3D-Printed Molds for Rapid Assembly of PDMS-based Microfluidic Devices
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords 3D Printing, Microfluidics, PDMS
Researchers Casey C. Glick
Abstract In this work, we demonstrate the use of 3D-printed molds for fabricating PDMS-based microfluidic devices. 3D Printing allows for the fabrication of molds that are not monolithic in structure, and therefore represents a significant improvement over the capabilities of standard soft lithography; with 3D-printed molds, we can fabricate most features commonly generated by soft lithography in addition to formerly difficult features such as domes and variable-sized channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this technique can be used to generate microfluidic devices molded on both sides - which allows for single-step generation of features like vias, thin membranes, and membrane valves - and can be easily adapted to generate multi-layer microfluidic structures.
Contact Information cglick@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN774
Project Title 3D Printed Integrated Microfluidic Circuitry
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Lab-on-a-Chip, 3D Printing, Microfluidics,
Researchers Eric Sweet, Casey Glick, Kevin Korner, Gregory Slatton, Ryan Jew
Abstract In chemical and biological fields, the advent of high-functioning integrated micro/nanofluidic circuits (IFCs) could have similar ramifications; however, current IFCs (as well as the majority of microfluidic systems and microscale mechano-biological platforms) suffer from a number of critical limitations associated with current micro/nanomachining processes. Specifically, microdevices for chemistry and biology are primarily constructed by means of monolithic “top-down” microfabrication methods, such as soft lithography. Such fabrication procedures are time, cost, and labor-intensive, and are functionally limited because monolithic layers inherently lack the versatility of 3D construction methods, thereby rendering the creation of relatively primitive structures, such as basic mechanical coil springs, impossible to achieve using standard soft lithography-based micromolding techniques. To overcome these limitations, we propose a paradigm shift in the area of biochemical microdevice manufacturing. For this project, we use “bottom-up” micro/nanoscale 3D printing technologies to create a new generation of 3D micro/nanodevices and IFCs for chemistry and biology. By using 3D printing techniques, we have achieved increasingly complex geometries (e.g., “Cal”-shaped microchannels, fluidic flow control, moving valves, etc.). Our “bottom- up” methodology could set a significant precedent, leading to a proliferation of 3D printed micro/nanoscale processors for basic scientific research and commercial applications throughout chemical and biological fields.
Contact Information ericsweet2@gmail.com, cglick@berkeley.edu, kevin_korner@berkeley.edu
Advisor Liwei Lin, Luke P. Lee

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN831 New Project
Project Title Sample-to-Answer Multiplex Molecular Diagnostics for Subtyping Pathogenic Bacteria
Status New
Funding Source Industry
Keywords
Researchers Sang Hun Lee, Byungrae Cho, Jun Ho Son
Abstract The rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for identifying the pathogen and patient care with precise antibiotic treatment in public health. Thus, various diagnostic approaches such as a sequencing, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) have been used, but current methods still lack for practical application due to long processing time, and a large equipment-based operation. Here, we report a macrofluidic diagnostic platform, capable of rapid sample preparation, pathogen lysis and genetic profiling of multiple pathogens directly in clinical urine samples within 20 minutes. Membrane-based, absorbent pad-assisted bacteria preconcentrator demonstrates “urine sample in - bacteria out” capability, achieving 90% recovery efficiency. The photothermal lysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based nucleic acid amplification allow specific detection of multiple pathogens for subtyping of pathogens such as K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and C. freundii. This integrated diagnostic platform described here enables a rapid diagnosis and identification of clinically relevant bacterial species for targeted therapeutic intervention and precision medicine.
Contact Information sanghun.lee@berkeley.edu, lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN829 New Project
Project Title Integrated Multiplexed Optical Microfluidic System (iMOMs) for Dengue Diagnosis
Status New
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords Diagnostics, Dengue, qPCR, immunoassay, multiplexed detection
Researchers Jong-Hwan Lee, Jun Ho Son
Abstract Dengue is an endemic viral disease that affects tropical and subtropical areas. It is estimated that more than 50 million infections occur worldwide per year. Due to its lack of pathognomonic clinical features, dengue is often mistakenly diagnosed as other febrile diseases, which thus leads to ineffective and costly overtreatment. Previously developed diagnostic tests for dengue can only detect a single biomarker (or two to three kinds of targets) at a time and they also lack comprehensive and syntagmatic analysis between various dengue-specific biomarkers. For an effective and precision diagnostics of dengue infection, a diagnostic test should not only be highly sensitive and specific, but also determine dengue virus serotype and distinguish between primary and secondary infection. This can only be accomplished by developing a multiplexed test that covers multiple targets. Here we present an integrated multiplexed optical microfluidic system (iMOMs) with the detection capability of four different nucleic acids biomarkers and five different protein biomarkers (i.e. NS-1, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE) on chip. We design, simulate, and fabricate the iMOMs using polymer microfluidic substrates. We integrate biological printing technology with the microfluidic device technology. We demonstrate multiplexed dengue specific- nucleic acid amplifications and immunoassays. The iMOMs will be an ideal dengue diagnostic platform for both developed and developing countries and can be applied to give accurate and ultra-sensitive point-of- care diagnoses for other intractable diseases as well.
Contact Information jonghwanlee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN824 New Project
Project Title Investigation of Dengue Infection’s Neurological Complications via a Comprehensive in-vitro Brain Model
Status New
Funding Source PCARI
Keywords Dengue fever, Neurological Complications, microfluidics
Researchers SoonGweon Hong, Minsun Song
Abstract Dengue fever is one of global health concerns as two fifth of world population are considered to expose to the infection risk and 20K patients results in death per year. Even after successful recovery from the febrile disease, it often causes secondary neurological complications including encephalopathy, residual brain damage and seizures. However, unclear etiological details of neurological disorders still inhibit to uncover suitable treatments of the complications. Herein, we develop an in-vitro brain model for the comprehensive systematic analysis of neurological complications due to of the Dengue infections. Our new minibrains-on- a-chip concept will allow to mature brain tissue mimicking in-vivo tissue complex in an interstitial fluidic dynamics and to monitor electrophysiological phenotypes in an in-situ manner. By administrating various etiological factors found in dengue virus (DENV) infection along with the dynamic flow, we will be able to address phenotypic connections of individual etiological factors. Our integrated in-vitro brain model analysis platform for Dengue infections will potentially provide a diagnostic and therapeutic frame for various levels of neurological disease associated with DENV infection.
Contact Information gweon1@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN804
Project Title A Rapid, Integrated Molecular Diagnostic for Gram-Negative Pathogen Detection and Identification Based on Antibody-Based Capture and Photonic PCR
Status New
Funding Source NIH
Keywords
Researchers Byungrae Cho, Jun Ho Son
Abstract The fast and precise detection and identification of pathogens has become significantly important in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. However, the conventional testing (bacteria cultures with several antibiotics for susceptibility test) needs one to four days to acquire the result. Here, we develop an integrated molecular diagnostic system that combines sample preparation, pathogen lysis, and genetic detection to identify pathogens within a few hours. Bacteria in relatively large-volume sample (3-5 mL) continuously passing through a fluidic channel are captured and identified by antibodies on the gold-coated nanopore membranes within 30 min. Gold - coated membranes can easily raise the temperature beyond 70 degrees Centigrade under LED light emission enabling rapid pathogen lysis. Combining with temperature control and photonic system, PCR can be executed for genetic detection of pathogen within 5 min. We expect that this integrated molecular diagnostic system will provide rapid diagnosis of pathogen infection and contribute to precision medicine.
Contact Information brcho@berkeley.edu, jhson78@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN730
Project Title Microfluidic Blood Plasma Separation for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Status Continuing
Funding Source Foundation
Keywords Microfluidic, Blood plasma separation, Point-of-care
Researchers Jun Ho Son, Sang Hun Lee, ByungRae Cho
Abstract Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have been widely developed for the rapid detection of infectious diseases such as HIV, TB and Malaria. Blood plasma separation is an initial step for most blood-based diagnostics. Although, centrifuge method is the classical bench-top technique, it is time and labor intensive, and therefore, automation and integration of blood plasma separation in the LOC device is ideal for POC diagnostics. Here, we propose a novel microfluidic blood plasma separation device for POC diagnostics. A membrane filter for filtration was positioned on top of a vertical up-flow channel (filter-in-top configuration) to reduce clogging of red blood cells (RBCs) by gravity-assisted cells sedimentation to prevent hemolysis of RBCs. As a result, separated plasma volume was increased about 4-fold (2.4 µL plasma after 20 min with human blood) and hemoglobin concentration in separated plasma was decreased about 90 % due to the prevention of RBCs hemolysis in comparison to a filter-in-bottom configuration. On-chip plasma contains ~90 % of protein and ~100 % of nucleic acids compared to off-chip centrifuged plasma, showing comparable target molecules recovery. This investigation will lead to a simple and reliable blood plasma separation device that can be utilized by individuals with minimal training in resource-limited environments for POC diagnostics.
Contact Information jhson78@berkeley.edu, sanghun.lee@berkeley.edu, brcho@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN811
Project Title High-Throughput Integrated Chiral Analysis Platform (hiCAP) for Active Drug Discovery
Status New
Funding Source Army/ARL
Keywords Plasmonics, Chirality, Resonance, Metamaterial, Nanostructure
Researchers Doyeon Bang, SoonGweon Hong, Jin-Ho Lee
Abstract As we see the mirror image of our hand, many biological molecules such as DNA and proteins have left and right handed forms. We call this nature of handedness as the chirality of molecular structures. It is important to notice that we have right-handed sugars and left-handed amino acids, and there is a need for an effective method to screen pharmacologically active drugs as well as understanding the mechanisms of chiral interactions in living organisms. Here we describe a high-throughput integrated chiral analysis platform with microfluidics (hiCAP) for precise analysis of chirality in biological molecules and large-scale measurements of chiral activities of thousands of active drugs. We fabricate an integrated chiral plasmonic nanostructures with different chiral plasmonic resonance on hexagonal templates. We obtain the quantitative molecular chirality of active drugs by observing change of resonance of chiral plasmonic nanostructure after binding chiral drugs with amplified signal (< 1 ppm) due to highly efficient interaction of plasmon resonance with an external circularly polarized light. We demonstrate a large-scale heat-map plot on chip directly from the hiCAP for pharmacologically active drugs and chiral selective reactions. We expect that our hiCAP not only broaden understanding chiral activity of active drugs, but also provide a rapid analysis tool for drug discovery for personalized medicine.
Contact Information doyeonbang@berkeley.edu, lplee@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN809
Project Title Photonic Cavity Bioreactor for High-throughput Screening of Microalgae
Status New
Funding Source Foundation
Keywords biofuel, microalgae, bioenergy, bioreactor, high-throughput screening, photonic cavity
Researchers Minsun Song, SoonGweon Hong
Abstract Algal photosynthesis, which makes up a large proportion of the photosynthesis on Earth, is considered to be a sustainable, alternative and renewable solution to green energy biofuel for energy crisis and global warming. However, to maximize the efficiency of photosynthesis in non- arable regions with varying environmental conditions, a precise and rapid screening method is critical for the selection of suitable strains from hundreds to thousands of natural and genetically engineered strains. Herein, we present a photonic cavity bioreactor (PCB) as a microalgal bioreactor that provides an optimal microenvironment of light and intercellular interactions, allowing the rapid screening of microalgae in a high- throughput manner. Our PCBs can scatter and amplify incident light, converting it into a spectrum favorable for algal pigment absorption. The bowl-shaped cavity permits close proximity between cells; thus, the typical lag phase of algal cultures is almost considerably shortened. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultured in the PCBs, and we attained 2-fold and 1.5-fold enhancements in the growth rate and lipid production, respectively, with a 2-day reduction in the duration of the lag phase. By generating such high growth and biomass conversion rates over a short period, the PCBs will be ideal bioreactors and rapid screening platforms for biofuel applications.
Contact Information sms1115@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN807
Project Title Integrated Molecular Diagnostic System for Alzheimer’s Disease
Status Continuing
Funding Source Foundation
Keywords integrated molecular diagnostic system, nanoparticle, Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid beta (Aβ)
Researchers Jin-Ho Lee, Ju-Young Byun, Jun Ho Son, Sang Hun Lee
Abstract Amyloid beta (Aβ) is one of most crucial neuropathological biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Up to date, the relation between the progress of the disorder and the interchange of Aβ level in the blood is still controversial; however, increasing evidence for transport of Aβ across the brain blood barrier (BBB) provides the linkage between concentrations of Aβ in central nervous system (CNS) and blood plasma. Hence, quantifying the Aβ level in blood plasma is considered as an emerging diagnostic method for AD. Here, we describe an integrated molecular diagnostic system (iMDx) for Aβ detection based on a dark-field microscope with single nanoparticle resolution. We obtain a sensitive plasmonic sandwich immunoassay for Aβ detection with a single nanoparticle resolution. We quantify simultaneously Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 on chip and characterize selectivity. We demonstrate the function of sample-to-answer iMDx that enables the portable diagnosis for Aβ level from whole blood by plasma separation. Hence, proposed iMDx could be a promising point-of-care tool for an early diagnosis of AD.
Contact Information jino@berkeley.edu
Advisor Luke P. Lee

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN826 New Project
Project Title Autonomous Flying Microrobots
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords electrohydrodynamics, microrobotics, ionocraft, ion thrust, MAV
Researchers Daniel S. Drew, Craig Schindler
Abstract Even as autonomous flying drones enter the mainstream, there has been no strong push for miniaturization by industry. This project looks to develop a new microfabricated transduction mechanism for flying microrobots with the goal of opening up the application space beyond that allowed by standard quadcoptors. The proposed mechanism, atmospheric ion thrusters, offer some advantages over traditional drone flight (e.g. with rotors) and also the opportunity to bring together multiple MEMS technology areas into one integrated system. A unique high-density field emission tetrode device combined with high-voltage solar cell arrays will provide thrust. Ultimately, integration with a low power control and communications platform will yield a truly autonomous flying microrobot with ion thrusters – the ionocraft. High-density self-aligned gated silicon field emitter arrays are currently being fabricated and tested. Simultaneously, we are seeking to demonstrate feedback control of a meso-scale ion thruster as a feasibility study for autonomous operation.
Contact Information ddrew73@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S. J. Pister

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN810
Project Title Non-Intrusive Wireless Current Metering of Standard Power Cables Using Vector Magnetic Field Measurements
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords energy monitor, power monitor, meter, magnetic field, vector sensor, non-intrusive
Researchers Naing Ye Aung, Michael C. Lorek
Abstract The goal of this project is to design a non-intrusive meter that can accurately measure the current in a standard electric power cable such as an extension cord or lamp cord by monitoring the vector magnetic field around it. Standard ’non-intrusive’ current meters either require the conductors to be separated and a single conductor inserted through a magnetic loop-based current transformer, or use an external magnetic field sensor and knowledge of the relative geometry of the wires and sensor. The net flux surrounding a standard power cable is zero because there is no net current in the cable inside. Locally, however, the two current-carrying wires produce a magnetic dipole. In this work, we are designing a sensor that uses multiple vector magnetic field measurements and intelligent algorithms to measure the current flowing in a power cable with no knowledge of the conductor geometry. The sensor will be a PCB-based solution that is easily movable between load devices, uses commercial sensors, includes low-power wireless communication, and can measure currents down to approximately 10 mA RMS.
Contact Information naingyeaung@berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN735
Project Title Walking Silicon Microrobots
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Microrobotics, electrostatics, actuators, MEMS, autonomous sensors
Researchers Daniel Contreras, David Burnett, Hani Gomez
Abstract The field of MEMS-based robotics has yet to produce a truly autonomous synthetic walking microrobot. This project seeks to develop a new generation of MEMS walking microrobots using simple processing techniques. These robots will be based on electrostatic linear actuators that will drive planar silicon linkages, all fabricated in the device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. By using electrostatic actuation, these legs will have the advantage of being low power compared to other microrobot leg designs. This is key to granting the robot autonomy through low-power energy harvesting. The ultimate goal will be to join these silicon legs with a CMOS brain and a high voltage solar cell array to achieve a fully autonomous walking microrobot. Current work is focused on characterizing the vertical force output and frictional losses of the planar SOI joints and linkages. We have demonstrated a 2 degree- of-freedom leg with motors in 30 square millimeters of silicon, with a vertical range of travel of 300µm and a horizontal range of travel of 1mm. Forces along the vertical axis have been measured to be over 200µN.
Contact Information dscontreras@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Kristofer S. J. Pister

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN744
Project Title Self-Destructing Silicon
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Joseph Greenspun, Osama Khan, Travis Massey, Brad Wheeler
Abstract Funded under the DARPA Vanishing Programmable Resources (VaPR) program, this project explores the fundamental issues associated with making wireless sensor nodes disappear after achieving an objective. The MEMS Hammer is a micromachined device capable of storing mechanical energy and delivering that energy to a target. It has been used to fracture other microfabricated structures made of silicon and silicon dioxide. The MEMS Hammer is capable of storing a wide range of energies with the upper limit exceeding 10uJ. These devices have been characterized to determine the tradeoffs among energy stored, total stroke, and layout area. The MEMS Hammer is being developed for a variety of applications ranging from creating a self-destructing mote to extending the effective lifetime of air-sensitive and moisture-sensitive sensors.
Contact Information ksjp@berkeley.edu, brad.wheeler@berkeley.edu, greenspun@eecs.berkeley.edu, oukhan@berkeley.edu, maha
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN803
Project Title Single Chip Mote
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Osama Khan, David Burnett, Filip Maksimovic, Sahar Mesri, Thaibao Phan, Brad Wheeler
Abstract To exploit the true potential of ubiquitous connectivity at scale, wireless nodes in a sensor network need to have a long lifetime and low cost. To reduce the cost of a sensor node, complete system integration is needed, including communication, computation, sensing, and power management on a single integrated circuit with zero external components. Therefore, a Single Chip Mote sensor node is being developed that is intended to operate from harvested energy, requiring no external battery or other components. Low-power wireless communication plays a key role in extending the lifetime of a wireless sensor due to high active power consumption of the radio in comparison to the rest of the node. Traditional transceiver architectures also require off-chip components such as crystal oscillators and passives, which must be eliminated in order to enable a completely monolithic solution. The elimination of external components, combined with reduction in transceiver power consumption, will truly enable perpetual operation of wireless nodes at low-cost and hence realize the vision of ubiquitous connectivity at scale.
Contact Information oukhan@berkeley.edu, ksjp@berkeley.edu, brad.wheeler@berkeley.edu, db@eecs.berkeley.edu, fil@eecs.be
Advisor Kristofer S.J. Pister, Ali M. Niknejad

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN685
Project Title Real-Time Intraoperative Fluorescent Imager for Microscopic Residual Tumor in Breast Cancer
Status Continuing
Funding Source ASCO, DoD, and Mary Kay Foundation
Keywords cancer, fluorescence imaging, radiation, surgery, breast cancer, oncology
Researchers Efthymios P. Papageorgiou
Abstract Successful treatment of early stage cancer depends on the ability to resect both gross and microscopic disease, yet no method exists to identify residual cancer cells intraoperatively. This is particularly problematic in breast cancer, where microscopic residual disease can double the rate of cancer returning, from 15% to 30% over 15 years, affecting a striking 37,500 women annually. Currently, residual disease can only be identified by examining excised tumor under a microscope, visualizing tumor cells stained with specific tumor markers. This microscopic evaluation restricts identification of tumor cells to the post-operative setting. Unfortunately, traditional optics cannot be scaled to the sub-centimeter size necessary to fit into the cavity and be readily manipulated over the entire surface area. To solve this problem, we have developed an imaging strategy that forgoes external optical elements for focusing light and instead uses angle-selective grids patterned in the metal interconnect of a standard CMOS process.
Contact Information epp@berkeley.edu, anwarme@radonc.ucsf.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser, Mekhail Anwar

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN665
Project Title Frequency Modulated Laser Source for 3D Imaging
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Photonics, LADAR, LIDAR, MEMS Tuning, EOPLL, Optoelectronics, Ranging
Researchers Phillip Sandborn
Abstract In recent years we have seen a growing demand for 3D cameras for applications such as gaming, entertainment, and autonomous vehicles. Present solutions suffer from high power dissipation and large size. This project leverages heterogeneous integration of standard CMOS electronics with high performance optical components including lasers, photo-diodes, interferometers and waveguides to reduce size, cost, and power dissipation.
Contact Information behroozpour@berkeley.edu, sandborn@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser, Ming C. Wu, Eli Yablonovitch, Connie J. Chang-Hasnain

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN608
Project Title FM Gyroscope
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords gyroscope, fm gyroscope, scale factor, bias stability, calibration
Researchers Burak Eminoglu, Luya Zhang, Sidney Buchbinder
Abstract MEMS gyroscopes for consumer devices, such as smartphones and tablets, suffer from high power consumption and drift which precludes their use in inertial navigation applications.  Conventional MEMS   gyroscopes detect Coriolis force through measurement of very small displacements on a sense axis, which requires low-noise, and consequently high-power, electronics. The sensitivity of the gyroscope is improved through mode-matching, but this introduces many other problems, such as low bandwidth and unreliable scale factor. Additionally, the conventional Coriolis force detection method is very sensitive to asymmetries in the mechanical transducer because the rate signal is derived from only the sense axis. Parasitic coupling between the drive and sense axis introduces unwanted bias errors which could be rejected by a perfectly symmetric readout scheme. This project develops frequency modulated (FM) gyroscopes that overcome the above limitations. FM gyroscopes also promise to improve the power dissipation and drift of MEMS gyroscopes. We present results from a prototype FM gyroscope with integrated CMOS readout electronics demonstrating the principle.         
Contact Information ycyeh@eecs.berkeley.edu, eminoglu@eecs.berkeley.edu, luyazhang@berkeley.edu, buchbinder@berkeley.edu
Advisor Bernhard E. Boser

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN819 New Project
Project Title Hybrid Porous Nanowire Arrays for High Energy Supercapacitor
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Nanowires, Supercapacitor, hybrid materials
Researchers Sinem Ortaboy
Abstract Recently, silicon based supercapacitors have received considerable attention for application in mobile and remote sensing platforms due to their unique properties such as high surface area, low cost, long lifetimes, and excellent charge–discharge capability. These promising energy storage devices store more energy than conventional dielectric capacitors and deliver higher power with longer cycle life than available battery technologies. Recent studies in the field of supercapacitors have focused on the realization of hybrid materials to further improve the energy density of supercapacitors via the introduction of transition metal oxides and conductive polymers, which have pseudocapacitive properties.
Contact Information sinemortaboy@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN827 New Project
Project Title Hydride Metal Oxide, Silicon Carbide Electrode as a Synergistic Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Cobalt Oxide, Nanowires, Oxygen Evolution Reaction, Silicon Carbide
Researchers Chuan-Pei Lee, Lunet E. Luna
Abstract Efficient, robust and economical realization of water splitting is a key technological component of a hydrogen economy. Catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are at the heart of the water splitting process, as they facilitate the removal of four electrons and four protons from two water molecules to produce one oxygen molecule. Despite tremendous efforts, the development of noble metal-free catalysts with high activity and durability remains a great challenge. In this work, we are developing processes for the synthesis of hybrid nanostructured metal oxide, silicon carbide electrodes and investigating their potential for oxygen evolution reaction.
Contact Information chuanpeilee@berkeley.edu, lunet@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN786
Project Title NanoPlasmonics for Sensing and Energy
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords
Researchers Arthur O. Montazeri
Abstract Controlling and concentrating infrared radiation has the potential to significantly impact infrared sensors, thermal imaging devices, as well as heat conversion systems. As most molecules have vibrational modes in the infrared range, they reradiate a great portion of the incident radiation instead of efficiently transmitting it. As a promising alternative, plasmonic gratings not only offer low-loss transmission of infrared radiation, but also compress the long infrared wavelengths. This localization effect greatly improves the sensing resolution and offers high-intensity fields at scales much smaller than the infrared wavelengths in free space. Such high intensities are invaluable probes for revealing light- matter interaction in nanoscale dimensions previously inaccessible. The challenge of creating low-loss materials in the infrared has been a nano-engineering feat utilizing functional gradients to guide and localize radiation. Recent advancements in nanofabrication, as well as a deeper understanding of light-matter interaction, have led to the realization of these plasmonic light-trapping gratings. We show the applicability of these structures as sensors for 1- detecting infrared signatures of molecules, 2- imaging, including bio-imaging, 3- concentrating thermal infrared radiation for energy harvesting. Our proposed structures utilize a gradient in the strength of plasmonic coupling between surfaces in close proximity to each other. Using this technique it is possible to fabricate such surfaces which possess a uniform depth and can be mass-produced using nano-imprint techniques.
Contact Information arthur.montazeri@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN762
Project Title Microheater-Based Platform for Low Power Combustible Gas Sensing
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords chemical sensing, combustible gas sensing, microheater, aerogel
Researchers Anna Harley-Trochimczyk
Abstract Accurate detection of flammable gases is essential for safe operation of many industrial processes. Installing networks of combustible gas monitors in industrial settings can allow for rapid leak detection and increased safety and environmental protection. However, existing combustible gas monitors are not suitable for use in wireless sensor networks due to the high power consumption. We have developed an ultra-low power combustible gas sensor with competitive sensitivity and lifetime characteristics that will enable ubiquitous wireless monitoring of combustible gases in industrial settings, resulting in enhanced safety. The core technology is a suspended polysilion microheater coated with a novel nanotechnology-based sensing material that catalyzes hydrocarbon combustion. Successful hydrogen and propane sensing has been demonstrated with platinum nanoparticle-loaded graphene and boron nitride aerogel as the catalytic sensing material. With 10% duty cycling, the sensor has a power consumption of 1.5 mW while collecting data once per second and with no loss in sensitivity. We are currently working on silicon carbide-based microheater platform, for enhanced stability at high operating temperature.
Contact Information anna.harleytr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Alex Zettl

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN790
Project Title Low Power Microheater-Based Platform for Gas Sensing
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Hu Long, Anna Harley-Trochimczyk
Abstract Detection of environment air pollution, especially toxic gas is important and critical to public health, environment and industry. Nitrogen oxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the most common and toxic air pollutants, which can be generated from combustion or automotive emissions. It’s crucially important to develop high performance sensors that are capable of detecting low concentration of these toxic gases in air accurately, reliably and quickly. Here, we report the integration of nanostructured materials on a microheater-based sensing platform to achieve fast, sensitive, selective, and stable gas sensing. We have developed a sensitive CO sensor by in situ synthesis of porous SnO2 films on a low power microheater. The sensor can detect 10 ppm CO with fast response and recovery time at low temperature. By easily integrating 3D MoS2/GA aerogel on the low power microheater, we made a NO2 sensor that are capable of detecting 50 ppb NO2 at both room temperature (0.1 mW) and 200 °C (~ 4 mW), while shows negligible response to CO and H2. Current work is focusing on better understanding the sensing behavior of these sensors.
Contact Information longhu@berkeley.edu, anna.harleytr@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN813
Project Title Novel Hierarchical Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Conductometric Gas Sensing
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords
Researchers Ameya Rao, Hu Long
Abstract Metal oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as sensing materials for conductometric gas sensors. Although porous hierarchical nanostructures (e.g. hollow spheres, tubes) of some metal oxides (e.g. tin oxide) have been reported to have high sensitivity and response/recovery speed, there has been no investigation into the combination of the hierarchical structures of multiple oxides. Such a combination (e.g. multiple concentric porous shells of different metal oxides) could show improved sensing performance compared to structures of just one material, including increased selectivity, in which many single metal oxides are poor. We are developing a simple and reproducible fabrication method for these novel nanostructures, which may be used in numerous combinations of different materials for a wide range of applications.
Contact Information ameyarao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN797
Project Title Synthesis and Friction Characteristics of Gecko-Inspired Adhesives
Status New
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Nano/Microfabrication, Friction, Gecko-Inspired Adhesive
Researchers Hai Liu, JuKyung Choi, Gina Zaghi
Abstract Geckos have a remarkable ability to stick to and climb almost any type of surface using micro- and nanoscale foot- hairs, which allow conformal contact against any counter-surface and thus, maximize the interfacial interaction. With the goal of mimicking the high adhesion and friction capability of geckos, we have fabricated ordered polymeric nano-fiber arrays of various soft and hard polymers, including low-density polyethylene and cyclic olefin polymers. In order to provide a useful reference for optimum high performance conditions, the effects of fiber geometry (diameter and length,) on the macroscale friction characteristics of the nano-fiber arrays have been systematically investigated. The performance is also evaluated against surfaces with different surface energies, hardness and roughness to help in the design of gecko-like adhesives that perform well on practical surfaces.
Contact Information shandaliuhai@berkeley.edu, maboudia@berkeley.edu
Advisor Roya Maboudian, Carlo Carraro

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN729
Project Title Development of Microfluidic Devices with Embedded Microelectrodes using Electrodeposition and Hot Embossing
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Packaging, Microfluidics, Electrodes, Hot Embossing
Researchers Marc Chooljian, Kathryn Fink
Abstract The use of microfluidic devices has experienced a tremendous increase over the last years, especially valuable for healthcare applications. In this context plastic materials are increasingly relevant especially for large scale fabrication and commercialization. However plastics are still not widely used at the research level due to the lack of available inexpensive industrial–like fabrication equipment. In this work we describe a rapid and highly cost-effective approach for fabricating plastic microfluidic devices with embedded microelectrodes allowing 2D and 3D configurations. We present an interdigitated microelectrode configuration applied to impedance cytometry and cellular electroporation/lysis on chip devices as an example of the great potential of this technology. Our long-term goals are to further explore the potential of hot-embossed microscale devices as platforms for complete BioMEMS devices. This includes the integration of functionalized elements and silicon-based biosensors. A variety of functional coatings will be developed to apply integrated electrodes to many different sensing applications.
Contact Information mschooljian@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN732
Project Title The Role of Erythrocyte Size and Shape in Microchannel Fluid Dynamics
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords
Researchers Kathryn Fink, Karthik Prasad
Abstract The unique properties of blood flow in microchannels has been studied for nearly a century; much of the observed blood-specific dynamics is attributed to the biconcave shape of red blood cells. However, for almost twice as long biologists have observed and characterized the differences in size and shape of red blood cells among vertebrates. With a few exceptions, mammals share the denucleated biconcave shape of erythrocytes but vary in size; oviparous vertebrates have nucleated ovoid red blood cells with size variations of a full order of magnitude. We utilize micro-PIV and pressure drop measurements to analyze blood flow of vertebrate species in microchannels, with a focus on understanding how cell size and shape alter the cell-free layer and velocity profile of whole blood. The results offer insight into the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and the selection of animal blood for the design and evaluation of biological microfluidic devices.
Contact Information kdfink@berkeley.edu, liepmann@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN711
Project Title Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Measurements of Blood Analytes Using Graphene-Based Sensors
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Biosensor, healthcare, graphene, microfluidics
Researchers Kiana Aran, Kathryn Fink
Abstract Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1C monitoring are all valuable tools in the health management of the aging population, especially given the increase in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Even for glucose monitoring, the challenges obtaining sufficiently accurate and reliable measurements are so significant that the FDA is contemplating more stringent standards. Guido Freckmann, et al., J. Diabetes Sci. Tech. 6, 1060-1075, 2012, have compared 43 blood glucose self- monitoring systems. Out of this, 34 systems were completely assessed and 27 (79.4%) systems fulfilled the minimal accuracy requirements and only 18 (52.9%) of 34 systems fulfilled the requirements of the proposed tighter criteria in the current standards draft. None of them meet the even more stringent requirement of ISO 2012 and FDA. Because inaccurate systems bear the risk of false therapeutic decisions and rising health care costs, there is an urgent need for significantly enhanced BG monitoring systems for PC applications. POC tests for other biomedically important analytes are generally even less accurate. The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop new sensor platforms that will provide increased sensitivity and accuracy in point-of-care situations. This is a joint project with Harvard Medical School and Vanderbilt University.
Contact Information liepmann@berkeley.edu, k.aran@berkeley.edu, kdfink@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN756
Project Title MEMS Devices for Oral Delivery of Proteins and Peptides
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords MEMS, Oral Drug Delivery
Researchers Kiana Aran, Marc Chooljian
Abstract Oral delivery of proteins and large molecule drugs has been a challenge due to the denaturing effects of digestive environment, enzymatic destruction and poor GI mucus permeability, leading to extremely low drug bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In spite of considerable efforts over the past decades, oral delivery of proteins and large molecule drugs with low therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability remains a major challenge. There is a great need for a suitable oral delivery system which can maintain the protein integrity, improve bioavailability and overcome the mucus barrier for maximum absorption. MucuJet is a high pressure jet-injector oral pill, for oral to systemic delivery of drugs. MucuJet can protect drugs from digestive destruction and can eject drugs with high pressure in the lumen of small intestine which can penetrate intestinal mucus, thereby overcoming the limitation associated with low diffusion rate across mucosal barrier. The feasibility of using MucuJet for enhancing intestinal absorption was tested in vitro which indicated that MucuJet is capable of high velocity drug release and is able to increase protein absorption in short amount of time with no significant effect on cell viability. CFD simulations have further indicated that Mucujet is able to penetrate the mucus barrier. Animal experiments have been completed for oral vaccine delivery and the results indicated that Mucujet is able to boost rabbit immune response effectively.
Contact Information k.aran@berkeley.edu
Advisor Dorian Liepmann, Niren Murthy

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN821 New Project
Project Title 3D Printed Smart Application with Embedded Electronics Sensors and Systems
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords 3D printing, IoT, Liquid-state electronics
Researchers Hiroki Ota, Yuji Gao
Abstract Our goal is the development of personalized applications using a 3D printed process which integrates liquid-state printed components and interconnects with readily available silicon IC chips layered across all three dimensions with various orientations to deliver fully integrated system-level functionalities. Our process allows for personalization of objects with electronic capabilities through the incorporation of advanced IC components and various sensing and actuation functionalities within complex 3D architectures. As an example application, our process can be used to develop personalized physical assisting and therapeutic devices that need to be tailored to the patientfs needs and body. To this end, we demonstrate a form-fitting glove with an embedded programmable heater, temperature sensor and the associated control electronics for thermotherapeutic treatment. Such levels of personalization and 3D integration of system-level functionalities into objects, as enabled by our process, are well aligned with the vision of Internet of Things.
Contact Information hiroki.ota@berkeley.edu, yuji.gao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN818 New Project
Project Title Fully-integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in-situ perspiration analysis
Status New
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Sweat, biosensors, system integration, wearable devices, flexible electronics
Researchers Wei Gao, Sam Emaminejad, Hnin Y.Y. Nyein
Abstract Wearable sensor technologies play a significant role in realizing personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual’s health state. Human sweat is an excellent candidate for non-invasive monitoring as it contains physiologically rich information. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements is a necessity. A mechanically flexible and fully-integrated perspiration analysis system is developed simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (e.g. glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature to calibrate the sensors' response. The work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning, processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin, and silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This wearable system can be used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and infer real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. The platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.
Contact Information weigao@berkeley.edu, sam.e@berkeley.edu, hnyein@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN822 New Project
Project Title Monolayer Semiconductor Optoelectronics
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Matin Amani, Der-Hsien Lien, Daisuke Kiriya
Abstract While two dimensional (2D) semiconductors show great promise for optoelectronic applications, due to a myriad of highly attractive properties which cannot be readily achieved in traditional III-V systems, to date they have shown tremendously poor photoluminescence quantum yield (QY). High QY is a requirement for materials used in key optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, lasers, and solar cells, since it determines the efficiency of light emission. Traditional three dimensional materials like GaAs require lattice matched cladding layers to obtain high QY, on the other hand 2D materials which have naturally terminated surfaces should be able to exhibit near-unity QY provided that there are no defects in the crystal. To this end, we have recently demonstrated that through chemical treatments with an organic superacid the defect sites on the surface of MoS2, the prototypical 2D material, can be repaired/passivated. Solution based treatment of defects is especially effective in monolayer semiconductors since the entire "bulk" of the semiconductor is also the surface. As a result the QY can be enhanced from less than 1% to over 95%. In this project we seek to expand this treatment to other 2D material systems as well as realize active devices based on perfect optoelectronic monolayers.
Contact Information mamani@berkeley.edu, ajavey@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN694
Project Title Monolayer Semiconductor Devices
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Monolayer; Layered chalcogenide; Electronics
Researchers Mahmut Tosun, Tania Roy, Daisuke Kiriya, Matin Amani
Abstract Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have the potential to be used in the future generation of electronic and optoelectronic devices due to their superior material properties compared to the conventional semiconductors. Although many proof of concept devices have been shown using TMDCs, the presence of large contact resistances are still a fundamental challenge to be able to realize the full potential of this material family in the functional devices. In this work, we study defect engineering by using a mild H2 plasma treatment to create defects in the WSe2 lattice. Material characterization done by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) confirm a defect induced n- doping up to degenerate level that is attributed to the creation of anion (Se) vacancies. The H2 plasma treatment is adopted in the fabrication of WSe2 n-FETs. Due to n-doping at the contact regions, improvement in the device performance metrics such as ON current improvement by 20× and a near ideal subthreshold swing value of 66 mV/dec are observed. This work presents defect engineering as a reliable scheme to realize high performance electronic and optoelectronic TMDC devices.
Contact Information mtosun@lbl.gov, tania.roy@berkeley.edu, kiriya@berkeley.edu, mamani@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN777
Project Title Nonepitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline III-V Semiconductors onto Insulating Substrates
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Kevin Chen, Sujay Desai
Abstract III-V semiconducting materials have many characteristics such as high electron mobilities and direct band. gaps that make them desirable for many electronic applications including high performance transistors and solar cells. However, these materials generally have a high cost of production which significantly limits their use in many commercial applications. We aim to explore new growth methods which can grow high quality crystalline III-V films, using InP as an example substrate, onto non-epitaxial substrates. In addition to excellent crystal quality, critical considerations include cost and scalability for commercially viable applications.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu, sujaydesai@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN747
Project Title Electronic Skin: Fully Printed Electronic Sensor Networks
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Flexible, printed electronics, thin film transistor
Researchers Kevin Chen
Abstract Large area networks of sensors which are flexible and can be laminated conformally on nonplanar surfaces can enable many different applications in areas such as prosthetics, display technology, and remote stimuli monitoring. For large area applications, printed electronics are favorable over traditional photolithography and shadow mask technology from a cost and throughput point of view and we demonstrate proof-of-concept for such a printed “electronic skin” system by printing a carbon nanotube based thin film transistor (TFT) active matrix backplane using a reverse roll to plate gravure printing design. This design allows for yields of up to 97% with printing conducted in an ambient environment and mobilities of up to 9 cm2/V⋅s, the highest reported for a fully printed TFT. Pressure sensors are then integrated onto the active matrix backplane, which enables mapping of the pressure profile across the active matrix area. In the future, this could be integrated with other types of sensors and devices to enable more functionality.
Contact Information kqchen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN704
Project Title Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide Thin Films on Metal
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Solar Cells, Photovoltaics, Indium Phosphide, InP, VLS, Thin Film
Researchers Mark Hettick, Hsin-Ping Wang, Peter Lobaccaro
Abstract Here, we develop a technique that enables direct growth of III-V materials on non-epitaxial substrates. Here, by utilizing a planar liquid phase template, we extend the VLS growth mode to enable polycrystalline indium phosphide (InP) thin film growth on Mo foils.
Contact Information mark.hettick@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN770
Project Title Chemical Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (CS-FET)
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords CS-FET, Gas Sensor, microfabrication, TMO
Researchers Hossain M. Fahad
Abstract Silicon IC-based fabrication processing will be used to develop novel compact gas sensors that, unlike current sensors, will operate at room temperature, consume minimal power, exhibit superior sensitivity, provide chemical selectivity and multi-gas detection capabilities, and offer the prospect of very low-cost replication for broad-area deployment. We name this device structure “Chemical Sensitive FET” or “CS-FET.” The operation of the CS-FET involves transistor parametric differentiation under influence of differentiated gas exposures.
Contact Information hossain.fahad@berkeley.edu, shiraki@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ali Javey

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN751
Project Title 64x64 Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch with Sub-Microsecond Response Time
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords optical switch, silicon photonics, large scale, fast, small footprint
Researchers Tae Joon Seok, Sangyoon Han
Abstract We developed a new architecture suitable for building a large-scale optical switch with fast response time. We have demonstrated switches with a scale of 64x64 and speed of sub-microsecond using our new architecture. The switch architecture consists of an optical crossbar network with MEMS-actuated couplers and is implemented on a silicon photonics platform. Thanks to high integration density of the silicon photonics platform, we could integrate 64x64 switch on an area less than 1cm x 1cm. To our knowledge this is the largest monolithic switch, and the largest silicon photonic integrated circuit, reported to date. The passive matrix architecture of our switch is fundamentally more scalable than that of multistage switches. We believe that our switch architecture can be scaled-up to larger than 200x200.
Contact Information tjseok@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN820 New Project
Project Title Multicast Silicon Photonic MEMS Switches
Status New
Funding Source NSF
Keywords
Researchers Sangyoon Han, Tae Joon Seok
Abstract Silicon photonic switches have been developed for fast and low-cost optical switching. However most of demonstration is still limited in unicast operation. In this project, we develop a silicon photonic switch that is capable of multicast switching. We have implemented silicon photonic switches with movable waveguide couplers that can control power splitting ratio precisely. The switch has 4x20 ports, fast switching time (<9.6 us), low optical insertion loss (<4.0 dB), and small footprint (1.2 mm x 4.5 mm). We have demonsatrated 1- to-2 and 1-to-4 multicast operation with the switch.
Contact Information sangyoon@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN721
Project Title Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (EPHI) Component Fabrication, Design, and Characterization
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords optical phase-locked loop, silicon photonics, 3D integration, MEMS, CMOS, VCSEL, HCG, PIC, FMCW LADAR,
Researchers Phillip A.M. Sandborn, Behnam Behroozpour, Sangyoon Han
Abstract Active III-V photonic components and passive Si photonic circuits are integrated with CMOS electronic circuits in this project. The modular MEMS- Electronic-Photonic Heterogeneous Integration (MEPHI) platform will make use of the high performance of the individual components and integrate (1) photodetectors, (2) Si-photonic waveguides, couplers, and interferometers, and (3) CMOS circuits for frequency control and temperature compensation. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed EPHI platform, a frequency-modulated continuous- wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) source is being developed. Results have shown that electronic-photonic 3D integration of optoelectronic components can greatly improve the performance of FMCW LADAR sources. We demonstrate an FMCW LADAR with 4-micron ranging precision.
Contact Information sandborn@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN825 New Project
Project Title Direct On-Chip Optical Synthesizer (DODOS)
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Jean-Etienne Tremblay, Yung-Hsiang Lin
Abstract The advent of precise microwave frequency synthesis in the 1940’s enabled a disruptive revolution in the capabilities enabled by microwave technology, including wireless and wireline communications, RADAR, electronic warfare, and atomic sensors and timing technology. It is envisioned that the DODOS program will advance a similar transformative revolution based on ubiquitous optical frequency synthesis technology. Laboratory-scale optical frequency synthesis was successfully realized in 1999 with the invention of self- referenced optical frequency combs based on femto-second pulse-length mode-locked laser sources. This has led to optical synthesizers with frequency accuracy better than 10-19 and demonstration of optical clocks with stability floor below 2x10e-18. However, such systems are large, costly, and thereby confined to laboratory use. Recent development of Kerr combs generated in microresonators, as well as chip-scale mode-locked lasers, enable the development of a microscale self-referenced optical frequency comb with performance rivaling that of laboratory-scale systems. Combined with recent progress in on-chip photonic waveguides and photonic crystals, widely-tunable laser sources, and optical modulators, along with advances in on-chip optical-CMOS heterogeneous integration, it is now possible to develop a robust and deployable single-chip integrated optical frequency synthesizer. It is expected that the DODOS program will enable low-cost and high performance optical frequency control with the ubiquity of microwave synthesis.
Contact Information meer.sakib@berkeley.edu, jetremblay@berkeley.edu, yhlin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN788
Project Title Optical Phased Array for LIDAR
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Lidar, Optical MEMS, Beamsteering
Researchers Youmin Wang
Abstract We have previously demonstrated the development of an Optical Phased Array (OPA) micromechanical system (MEMS) used for beam steering, which shows great advantages over previous mechanisms such as opto-mechanical, acoustooptical (AO) or electro-optical (EO). We aim to integrate the OPA MEMS system into the application of automobile navigation, which is currently primarily dominated by opto-mechanical scanning based systems. Opto-mechanical scanning devices are usually bulky and relatively slow, while competing technologies (AO, EO) utilize devices that while small in size, cannot provide the steering speeds and versatility necessary for many applications. In drawing from phased array concepts that revolutionized RADAR technology by providing a compact, agile alternative to mechanically steered technology, the OPA based LIDAR program seeks to integrate thousands of closely packed optical emitting facets, precise relative electronic phase control of these facets, and all within a very small form factor. Comparing with other competing LIDAR system, the OPA based LIDAR system will have multiple degrees of freedom for phase control which enables not only agile beam steering but also beam forming and multiple beam generation, greatly expanding the diversity of applications.
Contact Information youmin.wang@berkeley.edu, wu@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN458
Project Title Optical Antenna-Based nanoLED
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Plasmonics, Laser, Light Emitting Diode, Nanophotonics, Nanocavity, Optical Interconnects, Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
Researchers Kevin Han, Sujay Desai, Matin Amani, Seth Fortuna
Abstract Spontaneous emission has been considered slower and weaker than stimulated emission. As a result, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have only been used in applications with bandwidth < 1 GHz. Spontaneous emission is inefficient because the radiating dipole is much smaller than the wavelength and such short dipoles are poor radiators. By attaching an optical antenna to the radiating dipole at the nanoscale, the emission rate can be significantly increased enabling high modulation bandwidths theoretically >100 GHz. This project focuses on the physical demonstration of this new type of nanophotonic device. Current fabrication and experimental results of devices using transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as an emitter material will be presented. Fundamental limits of rate enhancement will also be discussed.
Contact Information kyh@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu, Ali Javey

 
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NanoPlasmonics, Microphotonics & Imaging
Project IDBPN703
Project Title Directly Modulated High-Speed nanoLED Utilizing Optical Antenna Enhanced Light Emission
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords nano-photonics, optical antenna, photonics, optical interconnect, nanotechnology, optoelectronics, plasmonics
Researchers Seth A. Fortuna, Kevin Han
Abstract Coupling an optical antenna to a nanoscale light emitter has been shown to increase the spontaneous emission rate by compensating for the large size mismatch between the emitter and emission wavelength. This spontaneous emission rate enhancement has been predicted to be as large as several orders of magnitude, easily surpassing the stimulated emission rate and enabling high direct modulation bandwidths. The aim of this project is to utilize this concept to demonstrate a directly modulated nanoscale semiconductor light emitting diode (nanoLED) with modulation speeds in excess of 10s of GHz, exceeding the bandwidth of semiconductor lasers. Unlike lasers, such nanoLEDs are also inherently low-power and do not require minimum threshold current density for operation and are therefore a promising light generating source for use, for example, in on-chip communication.
Contact Information fortuna@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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NanoTechnology: Materials, Processes & Devices
Project IDBPN798
Project Title Hyper Wideband-Enabled RF Messaging (HERMES)
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers TBD
Abstract The goal of the hyper-wideband enabled RF messaging (HERMES) project is to investigate advanced micro- systems and techniques for jam-resistant radio frequency (RF) communications. Hyper wideband (HWB) code division multiple access (CDMA) offers many unprecedented benefits for RF communications, including robust resistance to jamming and inference signals, and large coding gain for high data rate communications. Current challenges with implementing such HWB CDMA are the complexity and high power consumption of electrically based systems, particularly the receivers that are suitable for highly secure and robust portable communication appliances for various systems. We propose a novel, highly integrated and energy efficient photonic-assisted HWB receiver with a 10 GHz instantaneous bandwidth, 100kb/s data rate, 40 dB coding gain potentially up to 50 dB) and 70 dB jam-resistance (30 dB of adaptive filtering plus 40 dB of coding gain).
Contact Information meer.sakib@berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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Microfluidics
Project IDBPN552 New Project
Project Title Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics (Optoelectrowetting)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Digital Microfluidics, Droplet Microfluidics, Electrowetting, Optoelectrowetting, EWOD, Optofluidics
Researchers Jodi Loo
Abstract The ability to quickly perform large numbers of chemical and biological reactions in parallel using low reagent volumes is a field well addressed by droplet-based digital microfluidics. Compared to continuous flow-based techniques, digital microfluidics offers the added advantages such as individual sample addressing and reagent isolation. We are developing a Light- Actuated Digital Microfluidics device (also known as optoelectrowetting) that optically manipulates nano- to micro-liter scale aqueous droplets on the device surface. The device possesses many advantages including ease of fabrication and the ability for real-time, reconfigurable, large-scale droplets control (simply by altering the low-intensity projected light pattern). We hope to develop Light-Actuated Digital Microfluidics into a powerful platform for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications.
Contact Information jodiloo@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Ming C. Wu

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN354
Project Title The Nanoshift Concept: Innovation Through Design, Development, Prototyping and Fabrication of MEMS, Microfluidics, Nano and Clean Technologies
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords Nanoshift, nanolab, microlab, process, recharge, commercial
Researchers Ning Chen, Salah Uddin
Abstract Nanoshift LLC is a privately held research and development company specializing in MEMS, microfluidics and nanotechnologies. Nanoshift provides high-quality customizable services for device and process design, research and development, rapid prototyping, low-volume fabrication, and technology transfer into high volume. Typically, projects come from industry, government, and academia. Nanoshift is the solution for your device concept-to- commercialization needs. Nanoshift collaborates with BSAC to make industry-leading development resources available for all BSAC industrial members, while improving BSAC's visibility and funding.
Contact Information reception@bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michael D. Cable, John M. Huggins

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN828 New Project
Project Title Zero Quiescent Power Micromechanical Receiver
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Ruonan Liu
Abstract This project aims to explore and demonstrate a mostly mechanical receiver capable of listening without consuming any power, consuming power only when receiving valid bits.
Contact Information liur@eecs.berkeley.edu, ctnguyen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN540
Project Title Temperature-Stable Micromechanical Resonators and Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source Industry
Keywords µmechanical resonator, electrical stiffness, compensation, frequency drift
Researchers Alper Ozgurluk
Abstract This project aims to suppress temperature-induced frequency shift in high frequency micromechanical resonators targeted for channel-select filter and oscillator applications. A novel electrical stiffness design technique is utilized to compensate for thermal drift, in which a temperature-dependent electrical stiffness counteracts the resonator’s intrinsic dependence on temperature caused mainly by Young’s modulus temperature dependence.
Contact Information ozgurluk@eecs.berkeley.edu, ctnguyen@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN814
Project Title UHF Capacitive-Gap Transduced Resonators With High Cx/Co
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Alper Ozgurluk
Abstract The project explores methods by which the Cx/Co of UHF capacitive-gap transduced resonators might be increased to above 5% while maintaining Q's >10,000.
Contact Information ozgurluk@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN433
Project Title A Micromechanical Power Converter
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Power Converter, MEMS Switch
Researchers Ruonan Liu
Abstract The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate a switched-mode power converter (e.g., a charge pump) using micromechanical switching elements that allow substantially higher voltages and potentially higher conversion efficiencies than transistor-switch based counterparts.
Contact Information liur@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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Wireless, RF & Smart Dust
Project IDBPN701
Project Title Bridged Micromechanical Filters
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Micromechanical Filters, High-order Filters,
Researchers Jalal Naghsh Nilchi
Abstract The overall project aims to explore the use of bridging between non-adjacent resonators to generate loss poles in the filter response toward better filter shape factor, sharper passband-to- stopband roll-off and better stopband rejection.
Contact Information jalal.naghsh.nilchi@berkeley.edu
Advisor Clark T.-C. Nguyen

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN816 New Project
Project Title Cytokine fast detection
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords
Researchers Bochao Lu
Abstract Sepsis is a life threatening condition both in civilian and military medical scenarios. Patients with sepsis usually exhibit a vigorous systemic release of cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into serum. The ability to monitor relative cytokine levels continuously at fast time scales (10’s of minutes) could open the door to closed loop, patient-specific sepsis management therapies. The current methods of cytokine detection take hours and cost thousands of dollars. Here, we propose a new assay using the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis effect to preconcentrate cytokines and accelerating detection process. We will fabricate nanostructures in microfluidic device, in which electrical field will be amplified more than 10^5 fold concentrating cytokine molecules much faster than normal methods.
Contact Information steven_lu@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Package, Process & Microassembly
Project IDBPN823 New Project
Project Title Automated System for Assembling a High-Density Microwire Neural Recording Array
Status New
Funding Source State
Keywords
Researchers Travis L. Massey, Joong Hwa Lee, Mitas Ray, Nikhil S. Sathe, Xing Liu
Abstract Assembly at the microscale involves manipulation of one or more components relative to another in order to create a microstructure or device composed of these two or more components that would be difficult or impossible to monolithically fabricate. One specific class of problems that is well suited to microassembly rather than microfabrication is the creation of very high aspect ratio out-of-plane microstructures. As size and complexity of these out-of-plane microstructures grows, it becomes compelling if not necessary to automate the device assembly. To this end, we are developing an automated assembly system for one such device, a microwire-style microelectrode array (MEA) for textit{in-vivo}neural recording and stimulation.
Contact Information tlmassey@eecs.berkeley.edu, dlwndghk94@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN771
Project Title Silicon Carbide ECoGs for Chronic Implants in Brain-Machine Interfaces
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords
Researchers Camilo A. Diaz-Botia, Lunet E. Luna
Abstract Several technologies have been developed for interfacing with the brain such as microwires, electrode arrays, and electrocorticography (ECoG) arrays. While each of them has strengths and weaknesses, they all share a common disadvantage of limited device longevity due to a variety of failure modes; these include scar tissue formation and material failure, among others. A particularly pronounced problem is the failure of the insulating material at the insulator-conductor interfaces (e.g. recording sites and insulated conducting traces). Damage to these vital interfaces compromises device performance by altering the impedance of recording sites, or more deleterious, results in total device failure due to shorting between traces or between a trace and physiological fluid. To address these material issues, we have focused on the fabrication of silicon carbide (SiC) electrode arrays. As a surface coating, polycrystalline SiC has been shown to promote negligible immune glial response compared to bare silicon when implanted in the mouse brain. Additionally, due to its mechanical and chemical stability, SiC serves as stable platform and excellent diffusion barrier to molecules present in the physiological fluid. Moreover, and of particular interest to the neuroengineering community, the ability to deposit either insulating or conducting SiC films further enables SiC as a platform material for robust devices. Leveraging these unique properties, we have developed a fabrication process that integrates conducting and insulating SiC into 64-channel ECoG arrays. Recording sites 40 um in diameter are made of n-doped SiC while the insulating layers are either amorphous SiC or undoped polycrystalline SiC. To allow for low impedance interconnects, a metal stack of titanium/gold/titanium or a titanium/platinum is completely embedded in between layers of SiC. The result is an ECoG array that, to the physiological fluid, appears simply as a single SiC sheet wherein boundaries between conducting and insulating layers are seamless. The inner metal layer is well protected by SiC and therefore cannot be reached by molecules present in the physiological fluid. We believe this basic platform can be extended to a variety of electrophysiological devices, including penetrating probes of various geometries, and help mitigate the failure modes of the present technologies.
Contact Information cadiazb@berkeley.edu, lunet@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Roya Maboudian

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN573
Project Title Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Array for Chronic Stimulation and Recording
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords carbon fiber microelectrode electrode array electrophysiology chronic stimulation recording high density
Researchers Travis L. Massey
Abstract This project aims to create an array of carbon fibers for neural recording and stimulation.
Contact Information tlmassey@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN795
Project Title An Implantable Micro-Sensor for Cancer Surveillance
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords prostate cancer, beta radiation, Solid-state detectors, Low noise, CMOS, Imaging
Researchers Stefanie V. Garcia, Leticia Ibarra
Abstract We aim to develop a micro surveillance device for early identification of cancerous cell growth in collaboration with radiation oncology research from UCSF. UCSF will develop a molecular probe that specifically targets prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is over-expressed on prostate cancer cells. By radiolabelling these probes, cancer sites may be monitored in conjunction with an implantable array. We will design a 100x100 um semiconductor radiation sensor that can feasibly detect and localize cancer recurrence from 10^4 – 10^5 cells when placed near a cancer site. The sensors will use ultrasonic methods for power and signal transmission, as demonstrated in Dongjin et al, arXiv preprint arXiV:1307.2196 (2013). Initial sensor design will enhance CMOS device sensitivity to time dependent signal variation and will also explore signal recovery in the limited biological window where the radiolabelled probe is detectable.
Contact Information stefanievgarcia@berkeley.edu, ibarra.leticia@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Kristofer S.J. Pister

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN718
Project Title Direct Electron-Mediated Control of Hybrid Multi-Cellular Robots
Status Continuing
Funding Source Office of Naval Research (ONR)
Keywords microbiorobotics, synthetic biology, biosensors, stochastic control, hybrid biological systems, bacterial electrophysiology
Researchers Tom J. Zajdel, Alyssa Y. Zhou
Abstract We propose to design, fabricate and test a millimeter-scale, programmable cellular-synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environment. This will be the first demonstration of a millimeter-scale synthetic autonomous multi-cellular hybrid with organic and man-made components. A primary goal of this work is to enable abiotic/biotic two-way communication via electron transfer channels engineered into cells in contact with microelectrodes. We have successfully miniaturized an electrochemical sensing platform to the centimeter scale to measure current generated by engineered Escherichia coli cells in response to their enviornment. This platform enables control techniques that rely on combinations of gene expression, cell-level sensing, and CMOS digital computation.
Contact Information zajdel@eecs.berkeley.edu, alyssa.zhou@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN716
Project Title Ultrasonic Wireless Implants for Neuro-modulation
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords brain-machine interfaces, ultrasonic energy transfer and harvesting, backscatter communication
Researchers Dongjin Seo
Abstract A major hurdle in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) is the lack of an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a substantial fraction of a primate lifetime. Recently, sub-mm implantable, wireless electromagnetic (EM) neural interfaces have been demonstrated in an effort to extend system longevity. However, EM systems do not scale down in size well due to the severe inefficiency of coupling radio waves at mm and sub-mm scales. We propose an alternative wireless power and data telemetry scheme using distributed, ultrasonic backscattering systems to record high frequency (~kHz) neural activity. Such systems will require two fundamental technology innovations: 1) thousands of 10 – 100 um scale, free-floating, independent sensor nodes, or neural dust, that detect and report local extracellular electrophysiological data via ultrasonic backscattering, and 2) a sub-cranial ultrasonic interrogator that establishes power and communication links with the neural dust. To test the feasibility of this approach, we performed the first in-vivo experiments in the rat model, where we were able to recover mV-level action potential signals from the peripheral nerves. Further miniaturization of implantable interface based on ultrasound would pave the way for both truly chronic BMI and massive scaling in the number of neural recordings from the nervous system.
Contact Information djseo@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN699
Project Title A Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale Electrophysiology
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Neuroengineering, Nanoprobes, Optogenetics, ASIC, BioMEMS
Researchers Maysamreza Chamanzar
Abstract Truly large-scale electrophysiology simultaneous recording of thousands of individual neurons in multiple brain areas remains an elusive goal of neuroscience. The traditional approach of studying single neurons in isolation assumes that the brain can be understood one component at a time. However, in order to fully understand the function of whole brain circuits, it is essential to observe the interactions of large numbers of neurons in multiple brain areas simultaneously with high spatiotemporal resolution. This project will establish a complete system for multi-scale electrophysiology in awake, freely behaving mice, using state-of-the-art nano neural interfaces comprising of tiny silicon probes integrated with on- chip optical waveguides and compliant monolithic polymer cables connected to a unique light-weight head-mounted recording system built around a commercially available application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been custom designed for electrophysiological recordings, combining signal amplification, filtering, signal multiplexing, and digital sampling on a single chip. We demonstrate the high-resolution excitation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons imaged on a two-photon microscope by evoking action potentials in different parts of cortex. The entire process, including post-fabrication system integration, has been designed to leverage existing consumer manufacturing processes, making our probe technology mass- producible and widely accessible at low cost.
Contact Information chamanzar@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Timothy J. Blanche

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN769
Project Title Acousto-Optic Modulation of Brain Activity: Novel Techniques for Optogenetic Stimulation and Imaging
Status New
Funding Source Tri-Institutional Brain R&D Initiative
Keywords Acousto-optics, Nonlinear nanocrystals, Brain, Central nervous system
Researchers Maysam Chamanzar
Abstract One of the fundamental challenges in monitoring and modulating central nervous system activity is the lack of tools for simultaneous non-invasive interrogation of local neuronal ensembles in different regions of the brain. Despite recent advances in neural modulation techniques, including a rapidly expanding optogenetic and imaging toolset, we still lack a robust, minimally- invasive optogenetic stimulation platform. The ability to independently deliver light to multiple highly-localized regions of the brain would drastically improve in vivo optogenetic experiments. Illuminating a large volume of brain using light sources above the brain surface does not provide the requisite spatial resolution, and since the intensity diminishes rapidly only a small fraction of target neurons in the vicinity of the light source (~200 µm) will be excited. Increasing the light source power, conversely, results in the generation of excessive heat in the brain and the potential for tissue damage. This project uses specially designed up-converting nanocrystal particles (UCNP) to deliver light locally to neurons. We use an acoustic-optics modality to deliver and steer light in the brain from outside without causing damage to the brain tissue.
Contact Information chamanzar@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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BioMEMS
Project IDBPN745
Project Title Wafer-Scale Intracellular Carbon Nanotube-Based Neural Probes
Status No Activity
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords
Researchers Konlin Shen
Abstract Current in-vivo methods of electrical recordings of the brain are hampered by low spatial resolution, invasiveness to the surrounding tissue, and scalability. Carbon nanotube based electrodes are ideal for intracellular neural recordings due to their small size and flexibility, allowing for higher density arrays and less damage to the brain. However, current methods for selective placement and alignment of carbon nanotubes cannot be done easily on a wafer scale. This project aims to solve this issue in order to create wafer-scale carbon nanotube based neural probes for intracellular recordings.
Contact Information konlin@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN808
Project Title Acoustic Detection of Neural Activity
Status Continuing
Funding Source Fellowship
Keywords
Researchers Konlin Shen
Abstract There is a need for non-invasive methods of neural probing without genetic modification for both clinical and scientific use. It has been found that action potentials are accompanied by small nanometer-scale membrane deformations in firing neurons. These mechanical waves, known as “action waves”, travel down axons in concert with action potentials and could be used to determine neuronal activity. Because acoustic waves are far less lossy in the brain than electromagnetic waves, we believe it may be possible to detect action waves from neurons up to 4 millimeters away with a micromachined hydrophone. The detection of such acoustic signals could pave the way for both high resolution non- invasive recordings of neuronal firing as well as implantable probes with recording volumes much larger than conventional extracellular electrophysiological recording electrodes.
Contact Information konlin@berkeley.edu, maharbiz@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN731
Project Title Flexible Electrodes and Insertion Machine for Stable, Minimally-Invasive Neural Recording
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords neural recording, scalable, flexible, surgical robot, minimally invasive
Researchers Timothy L. Hanson
Abstract Current approaches to interfacing with the nervous system mainly rely on stiff electrode materials, which work remarkably well, but suffer degradation from chronic immune response due to mechanical impedance mismatch and blood-brain barrier disruption. This current technology also poses limits on recording depth, spacing, and location. In this project we aim to ameliorate these issues by developing a system of very fine and flexible electrodes for recording from nervous tissue, a robotic system for manipulating and implanting these electrodes, and a means for integrating electrodes with neural processing chips. We have fabricated five versions of the electrodes, and have demonstrated their manual and automated insertion into an agarose tissue proxy, ex-vivo brain, and in-vivo rat using a etched tungsten needle. We have also fabricated and tested in agarose four revisions of the inserter robot. The most recent inserter robot design uses replaceable cartridges for the electrodes, to which electrodes are mounted; these electrodes are made on a 4um thick polyimide substrate with a parylene peel-away backing. The parylene backing holds the fine wires and keeps them from tangling until they are inserted, and provides a more robust means of handling and mounting the structures. Similarly, both the insertion needle and micro-drill can be replaced intra-operatively via cartridges. We have developed a machine for micro-brazing the insertion needle. In vivo tests of the system are ongoing, particularly the new ballistic retraction mechanism for releasing the electrodes from the needle.
Contact Information tlh24@phy.ucsf.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz, Philip N. Sabes

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN765
Project Title Full-Field Strain Sensor for Hernia Mesh Repairs
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords strain
Researchers Amy Liao
Abstract Each year, more than 400,000 ventral hernia repairs are performed in the United States. A hernia is the protrusion of an organ through a weak spot in the surrounding muscle or connective tissue that normal contains it. Large ventral hernias (hernias that occur in the abdominal wall) are typically treated by suturing in a surgical mesh to cover and overlap the hernia defect. The surgical mesh provides additional support to the damaged tissue surrounding the hernia. However, in 25-40% of patients, the hernia repair fails, resulting in recurrence of the hernia, along with other complications including infection and intestinal obstruction. We hypothesize that a major cause of hernia recurrence is the unequal distribution of stress across the mesh resulting in high stress concentrations at the tissue-mesh interface, particularly at the site of mesh fixation to the abdominal wall muscles. Over time the mesh is pulled away from the abdominal wall at the high stress concentrations and the hernia defect recurs. We propose to design a biocompatible, instrumented patch, capable of mapping the 2D strain topography placed on the mesh. The sensor will enable surgeons to actively identify and address areas of high stress during the surgery by modifying the surgical procedure to redistribute stress more evenly, thus decreasing the rate of hernia recurrence. Furthermore, our long term goal is to design a hernia mesh that contains strain gauges and the associated circuitry such that once implanted in the body the prosthetic can alert patients when they are engaging in activities that place high stress on the implant. Such a dynamic, interactive hernia mesh would empower patients to actively participate in their post-operative care in a way that is personalized and unprecedented in surgery.
Contact Information amy.liao@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN714
Project Title Impedance Sensing Device to Monitor Pressure Ulcers
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords Wound Healing, Impedance Spectroscopy
Researchers Amy Liao, Monica C. Lin
Abstract Chronic cutaneous wounds affect millions of people each year and take billions of dollars to treat. Formation of pressure ulcers is considered a "never event" - an inexcusable, adverse event that occurs in a healthcare setting. Current monitoring solutions (pressure-distributing beds, repositioning patients every few hours, etc) are very expensive and labor intensive. In response to this challenge, we are developing a novel, flexible monitoring device that utilizes impedance spectroscopy to measure and characterize tissue health, thus allowing physicians to objectively monitor progression of wound healing as well as to identify high-risk areas of skin to prevent formation of pressure ulcers. Previous studies that examined the dielectric response of cell suspensions and tissues have identified several distinct dispersions associated with particular molecular-level processes that can be used to distinguish between tissue types. We are utilizing impedance spectroscopy to detect subtle changes in tissue, enabling objective assessment and providing a unique insight into the condition of a wound. Wireless capability can be implemented to allow for remote monitoring. In parallel, efforts are being made to transfer this technology onto resorbable substrates to create a device that can monitor internal wound healing and readily dissolve after healing.
Contact Information amy.liao@berkeley.edu, monica.lin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN780
Project Title Impedance Spectroscopy to Monitor Fracture Healing
Status Continuing
Funding Source NSF
Keywords
Researchers Monica C. Lin
Abstract An estimated 15 million fracture injuries occur each year in the United States. Of these, 10% of fractures result in delayed or non-union, with this number rising to 46% when they occur in conjunction with vascular injury. Current methods of monitoring include taking X-rays and making clinical observations. However, radiographic techniques lag and physician examination of injury is fraught with subjectivity. No standardized methods exist to assess the extent of healing that has taken place in a fracture, revealing the need for a diagnostic device that can reliably detect non- union in its early pathologic phases. Electrical impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize different tissues, and we hypothesize that this technique can be applied to fractures to distinguish between the various types of tissue present in the clearly defined stages of healing. We are developing an objective measurement tool that utilizes impedance spectroscopy to monitor fracture healing, with the goal of providing physicians with more information that can resolve the initial stages of fracture healing. This would enable early intervention to prevent problem fractures from progressing to non-union.
Contact Information monica.lin@berkeley.edu
Advisor Michel M. Maharbiz

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN802
Project Title Electret-Enabled Energy Harvesters for Use Near Current-Carrying Conductors
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Electret, magnetic actuation, AC power lines
Researchers Zhiwei Wu
Abstract The purpose of this project is to employ long-lived electrets in energy harvesters for use on power lines.
Contact Information zway@berkeley.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkieley.edu, paulwright@berkeley.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN801
Project Title Emergency Power-Line Energy Harvesters
Status New
Funding Source Federal
Keywords Energy harvester, overhead power distribution, system damage
Researchers Zhiwei Wu
Abstract The primary purpose of this project is to develop inexpensive energy harvesters for mounting on the conductors of overhead power distribution lines to energize sensors that evaluate the functioning of the line and detect physical damage to it caused by extreme weather conditions or by intentional sabotage. We also intend explore the use of these harvesters for powering co- located environmental sensors.
Contact Information zway@berkeley.edu, rwhite@eecs.berkeley.edu, paulwright@berkeley.edu
Advisor Richard M. White, Paul K. Wright

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN817 New Project
Project Title Ultra-Low Power AlN MEMS-CMOS Microphones and Accelerometers
Status New
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords AlN, MEMS-CMOS, microphone, accelerometer, subthreshold, low power
Researchers Jeronimo Segovia-Fernandez, Scott Block, Soner Sonmezoglu
Abstract State-of-the-art (SOA) physical sensors used to monitor changes in the environment require active electronics that continuously consume power (in the order of mW) limiting the sensor lifetime to months or less. This project targets the integration of low frequency sensors with wake-up electronics that operates below 10 nW (50 dB lower than the SOA) and uniquely consumes power when the event of interest (EOI) is present. To improve the sensor performance at low frequencies we design piezoelectric AlN MEMS microphones and accelerometers with high off-resonance transduction coefficients, CMOS circuits with low bias currents that operate in subthreshold, and lower the interconnect parasitics (<50 fF) by directly bonding both MEMS and CMOS wafers. In particular, the sensor output voltage is boosted by 1) segmenting and stacking the electrodes in series, and 2) optimizing the size, number of electrodes and materials that form the multilayer structure. Regarding to the circuit, we exploit the multiple threshold voltages that are available in the process to reduce leakage on switches, increase input gain, and decrease overdrive voltage in current mirrors.
Contact Information jsegoviaf@ucdavis.edu, stblock@ucdavis.edu, ssonmezoglu@ucdavis.edu, dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, ramirtha
Advisor David A. Horsley, Rajeevan Amirtharajah

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN628
Project Title Novel Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor Based on High-Frequency Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUTs)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords piezoelectric, ultrasound transducers, medical imaging, fingerprint sensors
Researchers Xiaoyue (Joy) Jiang, Stephanie Fung, Qi Wang
Abstract The goal of this project is to design and fabricate a MEMS based ultrasonic fingerprint sensor. Advantages of this sensor over existing fingerprint sensors include increased biometric security via imaging the dermis layer and greater insensitivity to finger contamination, such as oil or perspiration. A 110 X 56 array of high-frequency piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs), fully integrated with CMOS ASIC, has been fabricated and characterized to have a resolution of 75 um in a 500 dpi image. Moreover, imaging fingerprint on both epidermis and dermis layers has been achieved.
Contact Information joy.jiang@berkeley.edu, dahorsley@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN722
Project Title 3D Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor On a Chip Using Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (PMUT)
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Fingerprints, PMUT, ultrasonic, dermis, MEMS, integrated circuits
Researchers Joshua Kay, Joy Jiang
Abstract We've successfully built a 500dpi, 4.75mm x 3.5mm monolithic ultrasonic fingerprint sensor on a chip with PMUT and integrated CMOS process that solves the problem of capacitive fingerprint sensors. The sensor is resilient to common contamination such as dirt, sweat, and oil by penetrating through them, and the sensor has the capability of capturing inner-finger feature such as dermis fingerprint. The capability of generating a three-dimensional, volumetric image of the finger surface and the tissues beneath the finger surface makes it extremely difficult to deceive the sensor with phantom. The sensor images a fingerprint within 3-ms and 280-uJ, and could be turned to a standby mode consuming less than 10uW that only detects whether finger present. It's fully-integrated using AlN MEMS process as well as 0.18um CMOS process. The chip area is 5mm x 4mm.
Contact Information b96901108@eecs.berkeley.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley, Bernhard E. Boser

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN466
Project Title Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords Aluminum Nitride, Piezoelectric, Ultrasound Transducers, MEMS
Researchers Scott Block
Abstract Characterize air-coupled aluminum nitride piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (pMUTs) for use in range finding and gesture recognition applications. MEMS Aluminum Nitride (AlN) piezoelectric sensor technology has been chosen due to the relatively simple deposition process and compatibility with CMOS technology which enables the potential integration of the sensor and drive electronics on the same chip. Guided by both analytic and finite element models the optimum design parameters are chosen to obtain the desired resonant frequency, bandwidth, and maximum output sound pressure for the transmitter, and maximum sensitivity for the receiver. We are currently exploring several conceptual designs, using different fabrication processes, to improve robustness while maintaining the performance.
Contact Information stblock@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN785
Project Title Scandium-doped AlN for MEMS
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords Piezoelectric, MEMS, AlN, ScAlN, Thin films
Researchers Qi Wang
Abstract The goal of this project is to design, fabricate and characterize novel MEMS devices based on scandium-doped aluminum nitride (ScAlN) thin films. ScAlN thin film is a promising piezoelectric material due to its CMOS process compatibility, low relative permittivity and high piezoelectric coefficient and enables better performance of piezoelectric MEMS devices.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, qixwang@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN599
Project Title MEMS Electronic Compass: Three-Axis Magnetometer
Status Continuing
Funding Source Federal
Keywords
Researchers Soner Sonmezoglu
Abstract High sensitivity, low cost, low power, and direct integration with MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes make the MEMS magnetic sensor a very attractive option in consumer electronic devices. The goal of this project is to develop a low-power three axis MEMS magnetic sensor suitable for use as an electronic compass in smart phones and portable electronics. Our objective is to achieve a resolution of 200 nT/rt-Hz and power consumption of 1 mW/axis with DC power supply of 1.8 V. Although past devices designed by our group have demonstrated that our resolution goal is reachable, these devices suffered from dc offset larger than Earth's field and required an external programmable oscillator for operation. Here, we aim to reduce offset by two orders of magnitude for improving the long-term stability of the magnetic sensor and to develop self-oscillation loops to excite the sensor either at resonance or off-resonance.
Contact Information ssonmezoglu@ucdavis.edu, dahorsley@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN603
Project Title Micro Rate-Integrating Gyroscope
Status Continuing
Funding Source DARPA
Keywords MEMS, Rate Integrating Gyroscope, Controls
Researchers Parsa Taheri-Tehrani
Abstract The goal of this project is to realize a micro rate-integrating gyroscope that produces an output signal proportional to rotation angle rather than rotation rate. This device would eliminate the need of integrating the gyroscope's rate output to obtain the angle. Gyroscope resonators have at least two resonant modes that can be coupled by Coriolis force. Difference in damping coefficients and stiffness of the resonant modes of the MEMS resonator known as anisodamping and anisoelasticity are main sources of error in RIG. So realizing a micro rate-integrating gyroscope can be achieved by having highly symmetrical gyroscopes with extremely close frequency matching (delta f < 1 Hz) and high time constant (high quality factor). Control algorithms should be developed to eliminate the residual anisodamping and anisoelasticity errors.
Contact Information dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, ptaheri@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley

 
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Physical Sensors & Devices
Project IDBPN812
Project Title Improving Nonlinear Micro-Gyroscope Performance
Status Continuing
Funding Source BSAC Member Fees
Keywords micro-gyroscope. nonlinearity. mode coupling.
Researchers Martial Defoort
Abstract Due to their small size, micro-sensors experience complex phenomena, with in particular nonlinear anomalies, which affect their intrinsic properties and can dramatically reduce their performance. In the case of vibrating micro gyroscopes, while larger displacement typically leads to higher sensitivity, it also increases the nonlinearity of the system, altering both frequencies and quality factors of the modes of interest and thus decreasing performances. However, a careful control of these nonlinearities opens the way for new implementation schemes and improved stability in micro-sensors. This project involves both experimental and theoretical approaches to study the effect of nonlinearity on the operating modes used in micro gyroscopes, with the aim of using these nonlinear behaviors in order to increase the current performance of these micro-sensors.
Contact Information mjdefoort@ucdavis.edu, dahorsley@ucdavis.edu
Advisor David A. Horsley